What’s the latest on vaccination of adults 65 years old or over with conjugated pneumococcal vaccine?

Since August, 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended routine use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13, Prevnar) in adults ≥ 65 years, in addition to the traditional 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23, Pneumovax) (1).   The approval of PCV13 was based on a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (CAPITA) that found PCV13 effective in preventing vaccine-type pneumococcal, bacteremic, and nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (2).

Due to the potential  for mutual interference with immunogenecity, these 2 vaccines should be spaced apart. When PPSV23 is administered first, PCV13 should be held for 1 year or longer. On the other hand, when PCV13 is administered first, PPSV23 can be given within 6-12 months (minimum 8 weeks). So it makes sense to give PCV13 first in our older pneumococcal vaccine-naive patients.

 

1. Tomczyk S, Bennett NM, Stoecker C, et al. Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjuage vaccine and 23-valent penumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among adults aged ≥65 years: recommendations of the Advisory Committe on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR;2014:63: 822-25.

2. Bonten MJM, Huijts, M, Bolkenbaas C, et al. Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. N Engl J Med 2015;372:1114-25.

 

What’s the latest on vaccination of adults 65 years old or over with conjugated pneumococcal vaccine?

What’s ACNES (anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome)?

 As the name implies, this is an abdominal pain syndrome thought to be due to the entrapment of cutaneous branches of an intercostal nerve at the level of the rectus abdominis muscle (1,2).   It may be acute or chronic.

Up to a third of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the source of pain appears to be the abdominal wall, not the viscera (1,3).  Unfortunately, a third of patients experience pain for >1 year and about 10% for > 5 years before diagnosis of ACNES is made. In about one-half of cases, ACNES begins spontaneously, with the remainder developing after abdominal surgery or pregnancy, or is associated with “sports”, “job “ or “unusual activity” (4).   Females outnumber males by a 4:1 margin with an average age of 37  y (2).  Carnett’s sign on physical exam may be a clue (2,5) .

Identification of abdominal wall trigger points and their infiltration with lidocaine may relieve the pain instantaneously and can serve as a diagnostic test.  Surgical neurectomy may be effective in those with only temporary or partial response to repeated lidocaine injections (1).

 

References

1. Boelens OBA, Scheltinga MR, Houterman S, et al. Randomized clinical trial of trigger point infiltration with lidocaine to diagnose anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. Br J Surg 2013;100:217-221. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23180371

2. van Assen T, Brouns JAGM, Scheltinga MR, et al. Incidence of abdominal pain due to anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome in an emergency department. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2015;23:19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4327965  

3. van Assen T, de Jager-Kievit JW, Scheltinga MR, et al. Chronic abdominal wall pain misdiagnosed as functional abdominal pain. J Am Board Fam Med 2013;26:738-44. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24204070

4. Boelens OB, Scheltinga MR, Houterman S, et al. Management of anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome in a cohort of 139 patients. Management of anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome in a cohort of 129 patients. Ann Surg 2011;254:1054-1058.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21881494

5. Pearls4Peers.  https://pearls4peers.com/2016/12/20/in-my-patient-with-abdominal-pain-what-physical-exam-finding-can-help-differentiate-abdominal-wall-from-intra-abdominal-sources-of-pain

 

What’s ACNES (anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome)?

What role can hospital medicine physicians play in treating patients with opioid use disorder?

Opioid use disorder is a common comorbidity in hospitalized patients, but may pose a challenge to hospital-based providers who often care for patients with this chronic conditions only for a few days. Recent evidence suggests, however, that hospitalists can play an important role in helping these patients with their addiction problems.  A study that implemented screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in hospital settings concluded that illicit drug use decreased by 67.7% at 6 months in patients who underwent such intervention (1). Opioid substitution therapy may also be an option in hospitalized patients. A randomized-controlled trial of patients who underwent hospital-initiated buprenorphine/naloxone therapy followed by referral to primary care providers found a 41% increase in patient engagement with addiction treatment at 30 days in the intervention group compared to the group that received only referral for treatment (2).

1. Madras B, Compton W, Avula D, et al. Screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) for illicit drug and alcohol use at multiple healthcare sites: comparison at intake and 6 months later. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;99:280-295.

2. D’Onofrio G, O’Connor P, Pantalon M, et al. Emergency department-initiated buprenorphine/naloxone treatment for opioid dependence: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2015;313:1636-44.

 

Contributed by Ethan Balgley, Harvard Medical Student

What role can hospital medicine physicians play in treating patients with opioid use disorder?

How should I interpret an isolated elevated hemidiaphragm on chest x-ray?

In hospitalized patients, an elevated hemidiaphragm on chest x-ray is not a rare finding and is frequently asymptomatic. It has many potential causes, including lobar collapse or surgical resection of the lung, diaphragmatic eventration, distention of stomach or colon, or phrenic nerve paralysis (1).  Among patients with a paralyzed hemidiaphragm, damage to the phrenic nerve caused by surgery (e.g. cardiac), mediastinal tumors, cervical spine pathology, diabetes, autoimmune (e.g. vasculitis) and infectious causes (e.g. herpes zoster and polio viruses) are often cited as potential causes; most may be idiopathic, however (1,2,3). Chest x-ray has a high negative predictive value (93%) but a poor positive predictive value for diagnosis of hemidiaphragm paralysis (1).  When in doubt, the fluoroscopic “sniff” test should be used for confirmation.  

1. Chetta A, Rehman AK, Moxham J, et al. Chest radiography cannot predict diaphragm function. Resp Med 2005;99:39-44

2. Curtis J, Nawarawong W, Walls J, et al. Elevated hemidiaphragm after cardiac operations: incidence, prognosis, and relationship to the use of topical ice slush. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1989;48:764-8.

3. Crausman RS, Summerhill EM, McCool FD. Idiopathic diaphragmatic paralysis: Bell’s palsy of the diaphragm? Lung 2009;187:153-157.

Contributed by Ethan Balgley, Harvard Medical Student

 

How should I interpret an isolated elevated hemidiaphragm on chest x-ray?

Can novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) be reversed?

Since their relatively recent introduction, a major concern over NOAC use has been the lack of available reversal agents akin to vitamin K or fresh frozen plasma used to reverse anticoagulation effect of warfarin.

Fortunately, there are currently three potential NOAC reversal agents on breakthrough or fast-track status at the FDA, facilitating their rapid approval based on phase III trials:

  • Idarucizumab, a humanized mouse antibody fragment, or Fab, targeted specifically for reversal of dabigatran
  • Andexanet alfa, a class-specific antidote for reversal of direct factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban), as well as an indirect factor Xa inhibitor, enoxaparin
  • Ciraparantag (PER977), a synthetic water-soluble compound that reverses direct thrombin (dabigatran), direct factor Xa (apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban), and indirect factor Xa inhibitors (enoxaparin) (1). 

So stay tuned…Help may be on the way!

1. Ansell JE. Universal, class-specific, and drug-specific reversal agents for the new oral anticoagulants. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2016;41:248-52.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26449414

Contributed by William L. Hwang, MD, Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Can novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) be reversed?

How should I choose between the novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs)?

Although warfarin has long been the standard treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and thomboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation (AF), the need for its frequent monitoring, potential drug interactions, and narrow therapeutic window made it far from ideal. Since 2009, NOACs have become viable alternative agents owing to their more predictable and safer pharmacological profiles. NOACs include several direct factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban) and a direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran). Approved indications include: (1) thromboprophylaxis in nonvalvular AF; (2) treatment of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism; and (3) primary prevention of postoperative VTE. 

Compared to warfarin, NOACs are associated with a reduced risk of intracranial hemorrhage, and in the case of apixaban, lower risk of gastrointestinal bleeding; rivaroxaban and edoxaban have been associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.   Apixaban is also the only NOAC whose dose can be safely reduced in chronic kidney disease, including those on hemodialysis. 

References

 

1. Baber U, Mastoris I, and Mehran R. Balancing ischaemia and bleeding risks with novel oral anticoagulants. Nat Rev Cardiol 2014;11:693-703.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25367652 

2. Ansell JE. Universal, class-specific, and drug-specific reversal agents for the new oral anticoagulants. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2016;41:248-52. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26449414

 

Contributed by William L. Hwang, MD, Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA

How should I choose between the novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs)?