What’s the effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccination in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with high-efficacy disease-modifying therapies?

The answer appears to be dependent on which high-efficacy disease-modifying agent is being used to treat MS.  Limited data suggest that cladribine treatment does not impair humoral response to Covid-19 vaccine in patients with MS, while ocrelizumab and fingolimod have a major negative impact on vaccine responsiveness based on humoral antibody measurements.1

A study involving 125 Covid-19 MS vaccine (mRNA, Pfizer BNT162b2) recipients  (58% females, 61% relapse-remitting, 19% primary-progressive, 14% secondary-progressive, 3% clinically isolated syndrome and 2% radiologically isolated syndrome), found high levels of SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG in all subjects (n=23) receiving cladribine as early as 4.4 months from last treatment dose.1

In contrast only 4% of patients with MS treated with fingolimod had a post-vaccination humoral response (time-interval from last treatment dose to vaccination not reported).  Similarly, most patients under treatment with ocrelizumab failed to develop a post-vaccination humoral response, with only 23% demonstrating a protective antibody titer (time-interval from last treatment dose 3.1-8.9 months).

These results may not be totally surprising given the attenuated humoral response to several common vaccines in patients with MS treated with ocrelizumab or fingolimod.2,3

Given the potential suboptimal response to Covid-19 vaccine in patients with MS treated with fingolimod or ocrelizumab, until further data become available, it’s fair to state that patients treated with these agents should NOT depend on vaccination to protect them from Covid-19 and that they may need to still take extra precautions during the pandemic.   

 

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that fingolimod prevents lymphocyte egression from secondary lymphoid tissue and ocrelizumab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that depletes B lymphocytes?1

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

 

Reference

  1. Achiron A, Mandel M, Dreyer-Alster S, et al. Humoral immune response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with high-efficacy disease-modifying therapies. Therapeutic Adances in Neurological Disorders 2021;14:1-8. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/17562864211012835
  2. Bar-Or A, Calkwood JC, Chognot C, et al. Effect of ocrelizumab on vaccine responses in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2020; 95:e1999-22008. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32727835/
  3. Kappos L, Mehling M, Arroyo R, et al. Randomized trial of vaccination in fingolimod-treated patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2015;84:872-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25636714/  

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers, Mass General Hospital, Harvard Medical School or its affiliated institutions. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

What’s the effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccination in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with high-efficacy disease-modifying therapies?

Why is the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 increasingly becoming a “variant of concern” in the current Covid-19 pandemic?

The Delta variant (B.1.617.2, formerly India variant) has become an increasingly prevalent strain of SARS-Cov-2 causing Covid-19 in many countries outside of India, including the United States and United Kingdom, particularly affecting younger unvaccinated persons.  Several features of the Delta variant are of particular concern. 1-7

  1. Delta virus appears to be more transmissible when compared to previously emerged variant viruses. Data from new Public Health England (PHE) research suggests that the Delta variant is associated with a 64% increased risk of household transmission compared with the Alpha variant (B.,1.1.7, UK variant) and 40% more transmissibility in outdoors. 1,8  
  2. Delta virus is also associated with a higher rate of severe disease, doubling the risk of hospitalization based on preliminary data from Scotland. In vitro, it replicates more efficiently than the Alpha variant with higher respiratory viral loads.5
  3. Delta virus may also be associated with reduced vaccine effectiveness with increased vaccine breakthroughs. One study found that Delta variant is 6.8-fold more resistant to neutralization by sera from Covid-19 convalescent and mRNA vaccinated individuals.5 Fortunately, a pre-print study released by PHE in May 2021 found that 2 doses of the Pfizer vaccine were still 88% effective against symptomatic infection with Delta variant  (vs 93% for the Alpha variant) and 96% effective against hospitalization; 1 dose was only 33% effective against symptomatic disease (vs 50% for the Alpha variant).  Two doses of Astra Zeneca vaccine were 60% effective against symptomatic disease from the Delta variant.8 
  4. Aside from its somewhat unique epidemiologic features, Covid-19 caused by Delta variant seems to be behaving differently (starting out as a “bad cold” or “off feeling”), with top symptoms of headache, followed by runny nose and sore throat with less frequent fever and cough; loss of sense of smell was not common at all based on reported data to date.1

What the Delta variant reminds us is, again, the importance of vaccination, masks and social distancing. The pandemic is still with us!

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that, on average, a Delta variant-infected person may transmit it to 6 other contacts (Ro~6.0) compared to 3 others (Ro~3) for the original SARS-CoV-2 strains found during the early part of the pandemic?1

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

References

  1. https://www.bbc.com/news/health-57467051
  2. Knodell R. Health Advisory: Emergence of Delta variant of coronavirus causing Covid-19 in USA. Missouri Department of Health & Senior Services. 23 June, 2021. https://health.mo.gov/emergencies/ert/alertsadvisories/pdf/update62321.pdf
  3. Kupferschmidt K, Wadman M. Delta variant triggers new phase in the pandemic. Science 25 June 2021; 372:1375-76. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/372/6549/1375.full.pdf
  4. Sheikh A, McMenamin J, Taylor B, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC in Scotland: demographics, risk of hospital admission, and vaccine effectiveness. Lancet 2021; 397:2461-2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201647/
  5. Mlcochova P, Kemp S, Dhar MS, et al. Sars-Cov-2 B.1.617.2 Delta variant emergence and vaccine breakthrough. In Review Nature portfolio, posted 22 June, 2021. https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-637724/v1
  6. Bernal JL, Andrews N, Gower C, et al. Effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccines against the B.1.617.2 variant. MedRxiv, posted May 24, 2021. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.22.21257658v1 vaccine efficacy
  7. Allen H, Vusirikala A, Flannagan J, et al. Increased household transmission of Covid-19 cases associatd with SARS-Cov-2 variant of concern B.1.617.2: a national case control study. Public Health England. 2021. https://khub.net/documents/135939561/405676950/Increased+Household+Transmission+of+COVID-19+Cases+-+national+case+study.pdf/7f7764fb-ecb0-da31-77b3-b1a8ef7be9aa  Accessed June 27, 2021.
  8. Callaway E. Delta coronavirus variant: scientists brace for impact. Nature. 22 June 2021. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01696-3 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers, Mass General Hospital, Harvard Medical School or its affiliated institutions. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author.

Why is the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 increasingly becoming a “variant of concern” in the current Covid-19 pandemic?

My patient with Covid-19 and abdominal pain has an elevated lipase. Is there a connection between Covid-19 and acute pancreatitis?

Acute pancreatitis as a complication of Covid-19 is infrequent.1 Despite reports of elevated amylase/lipase and/or acute pancreatitis in some patients with Covid-19,2 the exact role that SARS-CoV-2 plays in causing acute pancreatitis is unclear at this time.

A retrospective study of over 11,000 hospitalized patients with Covid-19 in the U.S. found a point prevalence of acute pancreatitis of only 0.27%,3 while another retrospective study of Covid-19 patients seen in Spanish emergency rooms reported acute pancreatitis in only 0.07% of cases.4 Of interest, in the latter study, Covid-19 was associated with lower frequency of acute pancreatitis. Further adding to the controversy on the causative role of Covid-19 is lack of an observed increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis during Covid-19 pandemic. 1

An earlier study from China reported mild elevation (<3x upper limits of normal) of amylase and/or lipase in 17% of patients with Covid-19 pneumonia, none of whom had abdominal pain. 5

The temporal relationship between Covid-19 and acute pancreatitis has varied from abdominal symptoms at the onset of Covid-19 symptoms to days after diagnosis of Covid-19? 1

Despite these disparate findings, Covid-19 related acute pancreatitis or pancreatic injury is plausible. Pancreatic ductal, acinar and islet cells express ACE2, an important receptor for SARS-CoV-2.1 Infection in the GI tract (virus can easily be found in the stool) may potentially spread from the duodenal epithelium to the pancreatic duct and the pancreatic parenchyma itself. Immune-mediated inflammatory response or endotheliitis caused by SARS-CoV-2 may also potentially explain reports of pancreatic injury in Covid-19. 1,2

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that SARS-CoV-2 has been found in pancreatic tissue of some patients who succumbed to Covid-19 and has been shown to infect human pancreatic beta cells in-vitro.6  Perhaps we should be on the lookout for diabetes as a consequence of Covid-19 as well!

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

 References

  1. De-Madaria E, Capurso G. Covid-19 and acute pancreatitis: examining the causality. Nature Reviews Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021;18: 3-4. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41575-020-00389-y
  2. Kandasamy S. An unusual presentation of Covid-19: acute pancreatitis. Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2020;24:539-41. https://synapse.koreamed.org/upload/SynapseXML/2110ahbps/pdf/AHBPS-24-539.pdf
  3. Inamdar S, Benias PC, Liu Y, et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 presenting as acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterol 2020;159:2226-28. https://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(20)35115-5/pdf
  4. Miro O, Llorens P, Jimenez S, et al. Frequency of five unusual presentations in patients with Covid-19: results of the UMC-19-S. Epidemiol Infect 2020;148:e189. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32843127/
  5. Wang F, Wang H, Fan J, et al. Pancreatic injury patterns in patients with coronavirus disease 19 pneumonia. Gastroenterology 2020;159:367-70. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118654/
  6. Wu C-T, Lidsky PV, Xiao Y, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infects human pancreatic beta cells and elicits beta cell impairment. Cell Metab 2021 May 18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130512/

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers, Mass General Hospital, Harvard Medical School or its affiliated institutions. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

My patient with Covid-19 and abdominal pain has an elevated lipase. Is there a connection between Covid-19 and acute pancreatitis?

The urine culture of my female patient with urgency is growing Lactobacillus spp.  Should I treat it?

Lactobacillus spp. isolated from urine generally do not require treatment because these organisms are often part of the normal bacterial flora of the genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal tracts, are generally of low virulence, are rarely associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and may in fact have potential benefits in preventing UTIs. 1-4

In a study involving female urinary microbiome, subjects with urgency urinary incontinence were less likely to have Lactobacillus spp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing of transurethral catheter urine than those without symptoms, suggestive of possible protective role of this organism in female GU tract.1

Reports of Lactobacillus UTI are rare but one particular species, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, has been implicated in several case reports involving primarily elderly women.3,4

Vaginal colonization with lactobacilli provides a natural, nonspecific defense mechanism against infection in part by production of lactic acid and lowering of the regional pH which, when combined with hydrogen peroxide production by commensal anaerobes, interferes with colonization of the vaginal mucosal surfaces by potential pathogens. Lactobacilli also interfere with the adherence of pathogens by production of biosurfactants.3

It’s no surprise that lactobacilli are often considered “friendly bugs” and used in many probiotic preparations as well.5

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that contrary to the current dogma, urine is not sterile when tested by more sensitive enhanced urine culture or gene sequencing techniques?  Even in asymptomatic people, it may contain several organisms, including Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus (not aureus) and Corynebacterium? 2

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

References

  1. Pearce MM, Hilt EE, Rosenfeld AM, et al. The female urinary microbiome: a comparison of women with and without urgency urinary incontinence. mBio 2014;5:e01283-14. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25006228/
  2. Thomas-White K, Forster SC, Kumar N, et al. Culturing of female bladder bacteria reveals an interconnected urogenital microbiota. Nature Communications 2018;9:1557. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-03968-5.pdf (urine not sterile, bladder with lactobacillus prevention, normal asymptomatic
  3. Darbro BW, Petroelje BK, Doern GV. Lactobacillus delbureckii as the cause of urinary tract infection. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47:275-277. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2620876/#:~:text=Urinary%20tract%20infections%20caused%20by,a%20setting%20of%20ureteral%20obstruction.
  4. Maillet F, Passeron A, Podglajen I, et al. Lactobacillus delbrueckii urinary tract infection in a male patient. Med Mal Infect 2019;49:225-230. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0399077X1830787X?via%3Dihub
  5. Reid G. The scientific basis for probiotic strains of Lactobacillus. App Env Microbiol 1999;65:3763-3766. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC99697/ 

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers, Mass General Hospital, Harvard Medical School or its affiliated institutions. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

The urine culture of my female patient with urgency is growing Lactobacillus spp.  Should I treat it?

How effective are the mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in reducing the risk of hospitalization among adults 65 years of age or older?

The mRNA vaccines by Pfizer and Moderna seem very effective in not only reducing risk of symptomatic Covid-19 but also risk of hospitalization among adults 65 years of age or older.   A CDC study published on April 28, 2021, showed a vaccine efficacy of 94% among fully immunized and 64% among partially immunized adults ≥ 65 years of age  with approximately one-half of subjects  ≥75 years old.1

This study was carried out in 24 hospitals in 14 states in the U.S. during January 1, 2021-March 26, 2021, and involved 417 patients: 187 case-patients with Covid-19 and 230 controls with negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test.  Among patients with Covid-19, 10% were partially immunized (vs 27% among controls) and 0.5% were fully immunized (vs. 8% among controls). 1

An Israeli study in a nationwide mass vaccination setting involving persons (28% ≥ 60 y) receiving Pfizer mRNA vaccine similarly found a vaccine efficacy of 74% for hospitalization for partially immunized and 87% for fully immunized persons.2

The high effectiveness of mRNA vaccines against more severe Covid-19 requiring hospitalization is great news, of course, as advanced age is by far the greatest risk factor for death from Covid-19, independent of underlying comorbidities.3   

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that prior to the availability of effective Covid-19 vaccination, adults over 65 years of age represented 80% of hospitalizations and had a 23-fold greater risk of death than those under 65?3

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

References

  1. Tenforde MW, Olson SM, Self WH, et al. Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines against COVID-19 among hospitalized adults aged ≥65 years-United States, January-March 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7018e1.htm?s_cid=mm7018e1_w
  2. Dagan N, Barda N, Kepten E, et al. BNT162b2mRNA Covid-19 vaccine in a nationwide mass vaccination setting. N Engl J Med 2021;384:1412-1423. https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2101765
  3. Mueller AL, McNamara MS, Sinclair DA. Why does COVID-19 disproportionately affect older people. Aging (Albany NY) 2020;12:9959-9981. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288963/

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers, Mass General Hospital, Harvard Medical School or its affiliated institutions. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

How effective are the mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in reducing the risk of hospitalization among adults 65 years of age or older?

How long should my patient recovering from Covid-19 remain on isolation precautions?

For the great majority of patients with Covid-19, the risk of shedding viable SARS-CoV2 diminishes considerably as the time from onset of symptoms nears 10 days or more, with the risk higher among those who have severe (eg, sp02 <94%)  or critical disease (eg, in need of ICU care) or who are immunocompromised. 1-4  

For patients with mild-moderate illness who are not immunocompromised, the CDC recommends isolation for “at least 10 days” from onset of symptoms as long as at least 24 hours have passed since last fever without the use of fever-reducing medications and symptoms  (eg, cough, shortness of breath) have improved.  For patients with severe to critical illness or who are severely immunocompromised, “at least 10 days” and up to 20 days since onset of symptoms—with qualifications as above— is recommended. 1

A 2021 meta-analysis found that although SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in respiratory and stool samples may be prolonged, duration of viable virus was relatively short with no study detecting live virus beyond day 9 of illness.2

In contrast, another study involving patients with severe or critical illness (23% immunocompromised, 2/3 on mechanical ventilation) found  that the median time of infectious virus shedding was 8 days (range 0-20) and concluded that detection of infectious virus was common after 8 days or more since onset of symptoms; the probability of isolating infectious SARS-CoV-2 was  ≤5% when the duration of symptoms was 15.2 days (95% CI 13.4-17.2). In the same study, a single patient had infectious particles for up to 20 days following onset of symptoms. 3

The take home point is that although 10 days of isolation since onset of symptoms should be sufficient for mild to moderate Covid-19, for those with severe or critical disease or immunocompromised state, a longer duration up to 20 days may be needed.  The setting and status of the potential contacts (eg, an immunocompromised person in household setting) should also be considered in our decision making. 4

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that infectious particles are unlikely to be isolated from respiratory tract samples once patients develop a serum neutralizing antibody titer of at least 1:80, potentially useful information in deciding when a patient may come off isolation? 3

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

 

References

  1. Discontinuation of transmission-based precautions and disposition of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare settings. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/disposition-hospitalized-patients.html#definitions. Accessed March 24, 2021
  2. Cevik M, Tate M, Lloyd O, et al. Sars-Cov-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV viral load dynamics, duration of viral shedding, and infectiousness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Microbe 2021;2:e13-22. https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lanmic/PIIS2666-5247(20)30172-5.pdf
  3. Van Kampen JJA, van de Vijver DAMC, Fraaij PLA, et al. Duration and key determinants of infectious virus shedding in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Nature Communications 2021;12:267. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-20568-4
  4. Kadire SR, Fabre V, Wenzel RP. Doctor, how long should I isolate? NEJM, March 2021 https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMclde2100910?articleTools=true

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

How long should my patient recovering from Covid-19 remain on isolation precautions?

My elderly patient has a WBC count of 60,000 without obvious hematologic malignancy.  How likely is it that his leukocytosis is related to an infection?

Although extremely high WBC count in the absence of myeloproliferative disease may be associated with solid tumors and other causes, infections are often the most common cause of leukemoid reaction (LR), including tuberculosis, Clostridiodes difficile colitis, shigellosis, salmonellosis, pneumonia, abscesses, as well as  parasitic infections (eg, malaria), fungal infections (mucormycosis), and viral diseases (eg, HIV, EBV, Chickungunya fever).1-4   

In a study of 173 hospitalized patients (mean age 69 y) with leukemoid reaction (defined in this study as WBC ≥30,000/µl), infection was the most common cause of LR (48%), followed by tissue ischemia/stress (28%), inflammation (eg, pancreatitis, diverticulitis without perforation) and obstetric diagnoses (7% each) and malignant tumor (5%).1 

In the same study, the most common infections were “sepsis”, pneumonia and urinary tract infections.  Bacteremia was documented in 13%, while Clostridiodes difficile toxin assay was positive in 7% of patients.  The highest WBC counts were observed in patients with either a positive blood culture or positive C. difficile toxin.  In-hospital mortality rate was very high at 62%.

Similarly, in a study involving 105 hospitalized patients, the most common cause was infection, followed by malignancy and other causes. 2 In a smaller study of 25 patients with “extreme” leukocytosis (defined as WBC ≥50,000/µl) infection was considered the cause in 52% and malignancy in 44% of patients; about one-third were bacteremic (eg, Pseudomonas sp, Streptococcus pneumoniae, E. coli).3

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that besides infections and malignancy, drugs (eg, corticosteroids, epinephrine) and ingestion of ethylene glycol have also been associated with LR? 1,3,4

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

References

  1. Potasman I, Grupper M. Leukemoid reaction:Spectrum and prognosis of 173 adult patients. Clin Infect Dis 2013;57:e177-81. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23994818/
  2. Portich JP, Faulhaber GAM. Leudemoid reaction: A 21st-century study. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31765058/
  3. Halkes CJM, Dijstelbloem HM, Eelman Rooda SJ, et al. Extreme leucocytosis: not always leukaemia. The Netherlands J Med 2007;65:248-51. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17656811/
  4. Kumar P, Charaniya R, Sahoo R, et al. Leukemoid reaction in Chickungunya fever. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:OD05-OD06. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948452/

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

My elderly patient has a WBC count of 60,000 without obvious hematologic malignancy.  How likely is it that his leukocytosis is related to an infection?

“I go after Streptococcus pneumoniae and many other bacteria causing community-acquired pneumonia with vengeance but lately I have had a hard time keeping up with many gram-negatives, including some E. coli. Who am I?”

Additional hint: “The latest FDA warning against the use of my class of drugs has to do with increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta in certain patients, including the elderly and those with hypertension, aortic aneurysm or peripheral vascular disease.” 

Editor’s note: This post is part of the P4P “Talking Therapeutics” series designed to make learning about antibiotics fun. Individual antibiotics give a short description of themselves and you are asked to guess their names. Antimicrobial spectrum, common uses and potential adverse effects follow. Enjoy!

And the answer is…… HERE

Selected antimicrobial spectrum

                Gram-positives: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus                         (some resistance even in MSSA), Enterococcus spp (urine;some resistance)

                Gram-negatives: Enterics (eg, E. coli, Klebsiella spp), Pseudomonas spp,                                 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, H. influenzae, some ESBLs.

                 AVOID: MRSA, anaerobes

Common clinical uses: community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), urinary tract infections (UTIs), legionnaire’s disease, abdominal infection (plus anaerobic coverage)

WATCH OUT! QT prolongation, C. difficile, central nervous system toxicity, seizures, myasthenia gravis, peripheral neuropathy, tendinopathy, drug interactions (eg. warfarin), and most recently aortic aneurysm diagnosis/dissection!

Remember the key features of levofloxacin before you prescribe it!

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Selected references

  1. FDA. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients.  https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-warns-about-increased-risk-ruptures-or-tears-aorta-blood-vessel-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics. Accessed Nov 26, 2020,.
  2. Marangon FB, Miller D, Muallem MS, et al. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistance among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates from keratitis and conjunctivitis. Am J Ophthal 2004;137:453-58. https://www.ajo.com/article/S0002-9394(03)01287-X/pdf
  3. Yasufuku T, Shigemura K, Shirakawa T, et al. Mechanisms of and risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical Enterococcus faecalis from patients with urinary tract infections. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:3912-16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3209098/
  4.  Rawla P, Helou MLE, Vellipuram AR. Fluoroquinolones and the risk of aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2019;17:3-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6865049/

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

“I go after Streptococcus pneumoniae and many other bacteria causing community-acquired pneumonia with vengeance but lately I have had a hard time keeping up with many gram-negatives, including some E. coli. Who am I?”

How effective are face masks in reducing transmission of Covid-19?

Overall, review of data to date suggests that face masks are quite effective in reducing the transmission of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, the cause of Covid-19. A Lancet 2020 meta-analysis involving over 12,000 subjects, found that transmission of coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS and MERS) was reduced with face masks by 85% (adjusted O.R. 0.15, 95%CI 0.07-0.34).1

More specific to Covid-19, a study from Mass General Brigham hospitals found a significant drop in healthcare worker (HCW) SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity rate from 21.3% to 11.5% following adoption of universal masking of HCWs and patients.2

An U.S. epidemiologic survey of 2,930 unique counties plus New York City found mandating face mask use in public was associated with a significant decline in the daily Covid-19 growth rate. 3 It was estimated that more than 200,000 Covid-19 cases were averted by May 22, 2020 as a result of the implementation of these mandates.

Another 2020 meta-analysis involving 21 studies reported an overall efficacy of masks (including surgical and N-95 masks) of 80% in healthcare workers and 47% in non-healthcare workers for respiratory virus transmission (including SARS, SARS-CoV-2 and influenza).4

A criticism of above reports has been their primarily retrospective nature. A randomized-controlled Danish study found a statistically insignificant 20% reduction in incident SARS-CoV-2 infection among mask wearers (5,6).    Despite its randomized-controlled design, this study had several limitations, including relatively low transmission rate in the community and lack of universal mask wearing in public during the study period. In addition, less than one-half of participants in the mask group reported adherence to wearing masks, and there was no assurance that masks were worn correctly when they did wear them. 

At most, this study suggests that it’s not enough for the uninfected to wear masks; the infected—often with little or no symptoms— should also wear them to help curb the pandemic.

So please do your part and tell your friends and family members to do the same by masking up while we are at war with Covid-19!

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that universal wearing of masks in the public in response to a respiratory virus pandemic is nothing new?  It was adopted as far back as 100 years ago during the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic!

References

  1. Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2020;395: 1973-87. https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(20)31142-9.pdf
  2. Wang X, Ferro EG, Zhou G, et al. Association between universal masking in a health care system and SARS-CoV-2 positivity among health care workers. JAMA 2020;324:703-4. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768533
  3. Lyu W, Wehby GL. Community use of face masks and COVID-19: evidence from a natural experiment of state mandates in the US. Health Affairs 2020;39: July 16. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00818
  4. Liang M, Gao L, Cheng Ce, et al. Efficacy of face mask in preventing respiratory virus transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis 2020;36:1-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32473312/ 
  5. Bundgaard H, Bundgaard JS, Tadeusz DE, et al. Effectiveness of adding a mask recommendation to other public health measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in Danish mask wearers. Ann Intern Med 2020; November 18. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33205991/
  6. Frieden TR Cash-Goldwasser S. Of masks and methods. Ann Intern Med 2020; November 18. https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/m20-7499

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

How effective are face masks in reducing transmission of Covid-19?

What’s the connection between break rooms and transmission of Covid-19 in health care settings?

Emerging data suggest that healthcare workers (HCWs) may be at increased risk of Covid-19 in break rooms when consuming food or when in the presence of others without a mask.1-4

In a study of over 700 HCWs screened for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR at a university hospital, staying in the same personnel break room as an HCW without a medical mask for more than 15 min and consuming food within 1 meter of an HCW were significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.1 Consumption of food in break rooms by personnel was thereafter “forbidden” in this facility. Interestingly, 28% of infected personnel in this study lacked symptoms at the time of testing.

A recent outbreak at a Boston hospital involving both patients and HCWs months after institution of strict infection control measures (including universal masking of visitors and HCWs and PCR testing of all patients on admission) traced the outbreak to a variety of factors, including HCWs eating in crowded work rooms.2,3

A CDC study of risk factors among adults 18 years or older with Covid-19 in the community identified dining at a restaurant as significant risk factors for Covid-19.4

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during eating or drinking is not surprising because masks cannot be effectively worn during food consumption. Combine eating or drinking with talking, laughing and suboptimal ventilation system and we have all the elements of perfect storm for transmission of Covid-19 during food breaks.

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that, in addition to dining at a restaurant, patients with Covid-19 without known close contact with infected persons have reported higher likelihood of going to bar/coffee shop? 4

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

References

 

  1. Celebi G, Piskin N, Beklevic AC, et al. Specific risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission among health care workers in a university hospital. Am J Infect Control 2020;48:1225-30. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32771498/
  2. Freyer FJ. Brigham and Women’s hospital completes investigation of coronavirus outbreak. Boston Globe, October 19, 2020. https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/10/19/metro/brigham-womens-hospital-completes-investigation-coronavirus-outbreak/
  3. Freyer FJ. At the Brigham, “battle-weary” staff may have allowed virus to slip in. Boston Globe, September 24, 2020. https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/09/24/metro/brigham-womens-hospital-reports-cluster-10-covid-19-cases/
  4. Fisher KA, Tenforde MW, Felstein LR, et al. Community and close contact exposures associated with COVID-19 among symptomatic adults ≥18 years in 11 outpatient health care facilities—United States, July 2020. MMWR 2020;69:1258-64. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499837/

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliates. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

 

 

What’s the connection between break rooms and transmission of Covid-19 in health care settings?