What’s the connection between flu vaccination and lower risk of Alzheimer’s Disease?

As far fetched that it may sound, there is growing evidence that flu vaccination is associated with lower risk of being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).1

The most compelling evidence to date comes from a 2022 retrospective, propensity-matched study involving a nationwide sample of over 2 million U.S. adults ≥ 65 years old.1  This study found a 40% reduction in the risk of incident AD during the 4-year follow-up period when individuals receiving at least 1 dose of flu vaccine were compared to those who did not receive flu vaccination during the study period (number needed to treat-NTT 29.4). 

Despite its limitations, the results of the above study were concordant with those of several smaller studies that found an association between flu vaccination and lower risk of dementia of any cause.1-3  A 2022 meta-analysis also concluded that flu vaccination was associated with significantly lower risk (33%) of dementia among older people. Interestingly, in a study involving veterans, receipt of ≥6 doses of flu vaccines (not fewer) was associated with lower risk of dementia.4

Several hypotheses have been posited to explain the potential beneficial impact of flu vaccination on the risk of dementia, including: 1. Influenza-specific mechanisms, such as mitigation of damage secondary to influenza infection and/or epitopic similarity between influenza proteins and AD pathology; 2. Non-influenza-specific training of the innate immune system; and 3. Non-influenza-specific changes in adaptive immunity via lymphocyte-mediated cross-reactivity.1

So, in addition to its protective effect against severe influenza,5 and its association with lower risk of hospitalization for cardiac disease and stroke and reduction in death due to combined cardiovascular disease events (eg, heart attacks/strokes),  flu vaccination may be protective against AD! Who would have thought that a simple vaccine may have far reaching health benefits?

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that mice infected with non-neurotropic influenza strains have been found to have excessive microglial activation and subsequent alteration of neuronal morphology, particularly in the hippocampus, and that in APP/PS1 transgenic mice, peripheral influenza infection induces persistent elevations of amyloid- (A) plaque burden?Intriguing indeed!!!

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References

  1. Bukhbinder AS, Ling Y, Hasan O, et al. Risk of Alzheimer’s disease following influenza vaccination: A claims-based cohort study using propensity score matching. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2022; 88:1061-1074. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26945371/  
  2. Liu JC, Hsu YP, Kao PF, et al. Influenza vaccination reduces dementia risk in chronic kidney disease patients: A population-based cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 95 :32868. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26945371/
  3. Wiemken TL, Salas J, Hoft DF, et al. Dementia risk following influenza vaccination in a large veteran cohort. Vaccine 2021;39:5524-5531. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34420785/
  4. Veronese N, Demurtas J, Smith L, et al. Influenza vaccination reduces dementia risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev 2022;73:101534. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34861456/
  5. Godoy P, Romero A, Soldevila N, et al. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in reducing severe outcomes over six influenza seasons, a case-cae analysis, Spain, 2010/11 to 2015/16.  Euro Surveill 2018;23:1700732. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208006/
  6. Hosseini S, Michaelsen-Preusse K, Schughart K, et al. Long-term consequences of non-neurotropic H3N2 influenza A virus infection for the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease symptoms. Front. Cell. Neurosci 28 April 2021; https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2021.643650 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2021.643650/full

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, their affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

 

What’s the connection between flu vaccination and lower risk of Alzheimer’s Disease?

What’s the connection between dialysis and cognitive impairment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

Cognitive impairment (CI) is extremely common among dialysis patients affecting  up to ~70% or more  of patients (1-3).   Pre-existing conditions, dialysis process itself and uremic, metabolic and vascular disturbances associated with end stage renal failure may all contribute to the CI in patients on dialysis (1-5).

Among pre-existing conditions, vascular disease is considered the major contributing factor to the risk of CI in dialysis patients (3). The prevalence of stroke is very high among hemodialysis (HD) ( ~15%) and CKD patients (~10%) compared to non-CKD patients (~2%).  History of stroke also doubles the risk of dementia in both the non-CKD and HD patients. Subclinical cerebrovascular disease due to silent strokes and white matter disease —common in CKD and dialysis patients—are also associated with increased risk of cognitive and physical decline and incident dementia.  White matter disease is thought to be related to microvascular disease and chronic hypoperfusion (1).

Dialysis itself may be associated with acute confusional state due to cerebral edema caused by  acute fluid, urea, and electrolyte shifts during dialysis (particularly among newly initiated HD patients).  Some have suggested that the optimal cognitive function in HD patients is around 24 h after HD (1).

Chronic rapid fluctuations in blood pressure, removal of large fluid volumes and hemoconcentrations can further increase the risk of cerebral hypoperfusion, potentially accelerating vascular cognitive impairment in HD patients (1).

 Bonus Pearl: Did you know that while cerebral ischemia (measured by PET-CT or other non-invasive means) is common during HD, it may occur in the absence of intra-dialysis hypotension (6,7)?

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References

  1. Murray AM. Cognitive impairment in the aging dialysis and chronic kidney disease populations: an occult burden. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2008;15:123-32. https://www.ackdjournal.org/article/S1548-5595(08)00011-6/pdf
  2. Murray AM, Tupper DE, Knopman DS, et al. Cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients is common. Neurology 2006;67:216-223. https://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/cognitive-impairment-in-hemodialysis-patients-is-common
  3. Van Zwieten A, Wong G, Ruospo M, et al. Prevalence and patterns of cognitive impairment in adult hemodialysis patients: the COGNITIVE-HD study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 208;33:1197-1206. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29186522/
  4. Seliger SL, Weiner DE. Cognitive impairment in dialysis patients: focus on the blood vessels? Am J Kidney Dis 2013;61:187-90. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4433757/
  5. Findlay MD, Dawaon J, Dickie DA, et al. Investigating the relationship between cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 30:147-58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6317612/
  6. Polinder-Bos HA, Garcia DV, Kuipers J, et al. Hemodiaysis induces an acute decline in cerebral blood flow in elderly patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 208;29:1317-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5875962/
  7. MacEwen C, Sutherland S, Daly J, et al. Relationship between hypotension and cerebral ischemia during hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2017;38:2511-20. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314298128_Relationship_between_Hypotension_and_Cerebral_Ischemia_during_Hemodialysis

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

What’s the connection between dialysis and cognitive impairment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

Should Aerococcus urinae growth from the urine of my elderly patient be considered a pathogen?

Although for many years Aerococcus urinae was considered a urinary contaminant, increasingly it is recognized as an emerging pathogen capable of causing not only urinary tract infection (UTI) but also secondary bacteremia and endocarditis, among others.1   

The proportion of patients with aerococcal bacteriuria with symptoms suggestive of UTI ranges from 55-98%.1 So A. urinae can no longer be assumed to be a contaminant, particularly in the presence of symptoms suggestive of UTI.

A. urinae UTI often affects the elderly (median age 79 y) and those with pre-existing urinary tract pathologies, such as prostatic hyperplasia, urethral stricture, renal calculi, and prior urinary tract surgery.2,3 Many patients also have underlying comorbidities such as diabetes, heart disease, dementia, and chronic renal failure.3

One clue to the presence of A. urinae in the urine is its particularly pungent odor reminiscent of that of patients with trimethylaminuria (fish odor syndrome).4

Once you decide you should treat A. urinae, keep in mind that it is NOT predictably susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, or fosfomycin!  Instead, consider penicillin, ampicillin, cephalosporin, or nitrofurantoin to which most strains are susceptible.5,6.

 

References

  1. Rasmussen M. Aerococcus: an increasingly acknowledged human pathogen. Clin Microbiol Infect 2016;22:22-27. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454061
  2. Tathireddy H, Settypalli S, Farrell JJ. A rare case of aerococcus urinae infective endocarditis. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspectives 2017; 7:126-129. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473194/
  3. Higgins A, Garg T. Aerococcus urinae: An emerging cause of urinary tract infection in older adults with multimordidity and urologic cancer. Urology Case Reports 2017;24-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28435789
  4. Lenherr N, Berndt A, Ritz N, et al. Aerococcus urinae: a possible reason for malodorus urine in otherwise healthy children. Eur J Pediatr. 2014;173:1115-7 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24913181
  5. Christensen JJ, Nielsen XC. Aerococcus urinae. Antimicrobe @ http://www.antimicrobe.orgb75.asp , accessed June 14, 2018.
  6. Dimitriadi D, Charitidou C, Pittaras T, et al. A case of urinary tract infection caused by Aerococcus urinae. J Bacteriol Mycol 2016; 2: 00041. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a1cf/048d8444ce054ca9a332f7c2b4a218325ff6.pdf

 

Should Aerococcus urinae growth from the urine of my elderly patient be considered a pathogen?