Should I routinely screen my patients with heart failure for iron deficiency?

Even in the absence of anemia, screening for iron deficiency (ID) has been recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) by some European and Australia-New Zealand cardiology societies. 1

In contrast, the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America guidelines do not mention routine screening for ID in such patients but instead state (under “Anemia”) that in patients with NYHA class II and III HF and ID (ferritin < 100 ng/mL or 100 to 300 ng/mL plus transferrin saturation <20%), IV iron replacement “might be reasonable” to improve functional status and quality of life (IIb-weak recommendation).2

As these guidelines are primarily based on data derived from patients with HFrEF, whether patients with HF with preserved (eg, >45%) ejection fraction (HFpEF) should undergo routine screening for ID is even less clear due to conflicting data based on limited small studies 3,4

What is known is that up to 50% or more of patients with HF with or without anemia may have ID. 5 Although most studies involving ID and HF have involved patients with HFrEF, similarly high prevalence of ID in HFpEF has been reported. 6,7

A 2016 meta-analysis involving patients with HFrEF and ID found that IV iron therapy alleviates HF symptoms and improves outcomes, exercise capacity and quality of life irrespective of concomitant anemia; all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were not significantly impacted, however.8  

Fortunately, larger trials in the setting of acute and chronic systolic HF are underway (Affirm-AHF, 9 IRONMAN 10).  Stay tuned!

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that iron deficiency directly affects human cardiomyocyte function by impairing mitochondrial respiration  and reducing its contractility and relaxation?11

References

  1. Silverberg DS, Wexler D, Schwartz D. Is correction of iron deficiency a new addition to the treatment of the heart failure? Int J Mol Sci 2015;16:14056-74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4490538/
  2. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure. Circulation 2017;136:e137-e161. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000509
  3. Kasner M, Aleksandrov AS, Westermann D, et al. Functional iron deficiency and diastolic function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. International J of Cardiol 2013;168:12:4652-57. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23968714
  4. Enjuanes C, Klip IT, Bruguera J, et al. Iron deficiency and health-related quality of life in chronic heart failure: results from a multicenter European study. Int J Cardiol 2014;174:268-275. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24768464
  5. Drodz M, Jankowska EA, Banasiak W, et al. Iron therapy in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency: review of iron preparations for practitioners. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2017;17:183-201. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28039585
  6. Bekfani T, Pellicori P, Morris D, et al. Iron deficiency in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and its association with reduced exercise capacity, muscle strength and quality of life. Clin Res Cardiol 2018, July 26. Doi: 10. 1007/s00392-018-1344-x. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30051186
  7. Nunez J, Dominguez E, Ramon JM, et al. Iron deficiency and functional capacity in patients with advanced heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. International J Cardiol 2016;207:365-67. https://www.internationaljournalofcardiology.com/article/S0167-5273(16)30185-1/abstract
  8. Jankowska EA, Tkaczynszyn M, Suchocki T, et al. Effects of intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with systolic heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Heart Failure 2016;18:786-95. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26821594
  9. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02937454
  10. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02642562
  11. Hoes MF, Beverborg NG, Kijlstra JD, et al. Iron deficiency impairs contractility of human cardiomyoctyes through decreased mitochondrial function. Eur J Heart Failure 2018;20:910-19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29484788  

 

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Should I routinely screen my patients with heart failure for iron deficiency?

Should Aerococcus urinae growth from the urine of my elderly patient be considered a pathogen?

Although for many years Aerococcus urinae was considered a urinary contaminant, increasingly it is recognized as an emerging pathogen capable of causing not only urinary tract infection (UTI) but also secondary bacteremia and endocarditis, among others.1   

The proportion of patients with aerococcal bacteriuria with symptoms suggestive of UTI ranges from 55-98%.1 So A. urinae can no longer be assumed to be a contaminant, particularly in the presence of symptoms suggestive of UTI.

A. urinae UTI often affects the elderly (median age 79 y) and those with pre-existing urinary tract pathologies, such as prostatic hyperplasia, urethral stricture, renal calculi, and prior urinary tract surgery.2,3 Many patients also have underlying comorbidities such as diabetes, heart disease, dementia, and chronic renal failure.3

One clue to the presence of A. urinae in the urine is its particularly pungent odor reminiscent of that of patients with trimethylaminuria (fish odor syndrome).4

Once you decide you should treat A. urinae, keep in mind that it is NOT predictably susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, or fosfomycin!  Instead, consider penicillin, ampicillin, cephalosporin, or nitrofurantoin to which most strains are susceptible.5,6.

 

References

  1. Rasmussen M. Aerococcus: an increasingly acknowledged human pathogen. Clin Microbiol Infect 2016;22:22-27. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454061
  2. Tathireddy H, Settypalli S, Farrell JJ. A rare case of aerococcus urinae infective endocarditis. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspectives 2017; 7:126-129. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473194/
  3. Higgins A, Garg T. Aerococcus urinae: An emerging cause of urinary tract infection in older adults with multimordidity and urologic cancer. Urology Case Reports 2017;24-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28435789
  4. Lenherr N, Berndt A, Ritz N, et al. Aerococcus urinae: a possible reason for malodorus urine in otherwise healthy children. Eur J Pediatr. 2014;173:1115-7 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24913181
  5. Christensen JJ, Nielsen XC. Aerococcus urinae. Antimicrobe @ http://www.antimicrobe.orgb75.asp , accessed June 14, 2018.
  6. Dimitriadi D, Charitidou C, Pittaras T, et al. A case of urinary tract infection caused by Aerococcus urinae. J Bacteriol Mycol 2016; 2: 00041. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a1cf/048d8444ce054ca9a332f7c2b4a218325ff6.pdf

 

Should Aerococcus urinae growth from the urine of my elderly patient be considered a pathogen?