Should my patient with non-valvular atrial fibrillation on hemodialysis be anticoagulated?

Whether patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) benefit from anticoagulation is a matter of controversy. 1,3 Although there may be some suggestion of benefit of warfarin for stroke prevention in this patient population, 2 there is also a higher concern for bleeding. 4-6 An increased risk of stroke among patients with ESKD and AF on warfarin has also been reported. 7

A 2018 Kidney Disease:Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference concluded that there is “insufficient high-quality evidence” to recommend anticoagulation for prevention of stroke in patients with ESKD and atrial fibrillation. 8

However, the 2014 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA)/ Heart Rhythm (HRS) guideline states that it is reasonable to consider warfarin therapy in patients with ESKD and non-valvular AF with CHA2DS2 -VASc score of 2 or greater (Class IIa recommendation, level of evidence B).8 Of interest, the FDA recently approved the use of a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC), apixaban, in ESKD potentially providing an alternative to the use of warfarin when anticoagulation is considered.10

Perhaps the decision to anticoagulate patients with ESKD for atrial fibrillation is best made on a case-by-case basis taking into account a variety of factors, including the risk of thromboembolic event, the risk of bleeding complications as well as patient preference.

References

1. Genovesi S, Vincenti A, Rossi E, et al. Atrial fibrillation and morbidity and mortality in a cohort of long-term hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2008;51:255-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18215703

2. Olesen JB, Lip GY, Kamper AL, et al. Stroke and bleeding in atrial fibrillation with chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 2012;367:625-35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894575

3. Shah M, Avgil TM, Jackevicius CA, et al. Warfarin use and the risk for stroke and bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing dialysis. Circulation2014;129:1196-203. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24452752

4. Elliott MJ, Zimmerman D, Holden RM. Warfarin anticoagulation in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review of bleeding rates. Am J Kidney Dis 2007;50:433-40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17720522

5. Holden RM, Harman GJ, Wang M, Holland D, Day AG. Major bleeding in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008;3:105-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18003768

6. Wizemann V, Tong L, Satayathum S, et al. Atrial fibrillation in hemodialysis patients: clinical features and associations with anticoagulant therapy. Kidney Int 2010;77:1098-106. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20054291

7. Chan KE, Lazarus JM, Thadhani R, Hakim RM. Warfarin use associates with increased risk for stroke in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. J Am Soc Nephrol2009;20:2223-33. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754104/

8. Turakhia MP, Blankestijn PJ, Carrero J, et al. Chronic kidney disease and arrythias: conclusions from a Kidney Disease:Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference. Eur Heart J, ehy060. Published 07 March 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29522134

9. January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2014;130:2071-104. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/130/23/2071 

10. Moll S. Use of direct oral anticoagulants in patients on hemodialysis. Diffusion, October 11, 2017. http://www.hematology.org/Thehematologist/Diffusion/7794.aspx 

Contributed by Brad Lander, MD, Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Should my patient with non-valvular atrial fibrillation on hemodialysis be anticoagulated?

Why are patients with acute exacerbation of COPD at higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Patients admitted to the hospital for acute exacerbation of COPD are generally regarded as being at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (prevalence 5%-29%), possibly due to the frequent coexistence of other risk factors, such as immobility, history of smoking, and venous stasis.1 The exact mechanism(s) behind this association remains poorly understood, however.

Among patients with moderate-very severe COPD (GOLD criteria stage II-IV),  high BMI, low exercise tolerance, history of pneumothorax, congestive heart failure, and peripheral vascular disease have also been associated with VTE.1

Systemic inflammation has also been implicated in increasing the risk of VTE in patients with COPD. Although the pathophysiology of COPD is largely defined by the local inflammatory response to airway injury, evidence suggests that there is also a systemic inflammatory response in COPD.2,3 This systemic inflammation could in turn contribute to the increased risk of vascular disease, including VTE, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease.4

Bonus pearl: Did you know that VTE may be 3x more prevalent among patients with COPD exacerbation without known cause (vs those with identifiable cause) and is associated with a 1-year mortality of 61.9%! 5

References:

  1. Kim V, Goel N, Gangar J, et al. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis 2014;1: 239-249. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844397
  2. Lankeit M, Held M. Incidence of venous thromboembolism in COPD: linking inflammation and thrombosis? Eur Respir J 2016;47(2):369-73. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828045
  3. Sinden NJ1, Stockley RA. Systemic inflammation and comorbidity in COPD: a result of ‘overspill’ of inflammatory mediators from the lungs? Review of the evidence. Thorax 2010;65:930-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20627907
  4. King PT. Inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its role in cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. Clinical and Translational Medicine 2015;4:26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4518022/
  5. Gunen H, Gulbas G, In E, et al. Venous thromboemboli and exacerbations of COPD. Eur Respir J 2010;36:1243-8.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19926740 

Contributed by Camilo Campo, Medical Student, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Why are patients with acute exacerbation of COPD at higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Should my patient with below-knee venous thrombosis receive anticoagulation?

In contrast to proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis for which anticoagulation (AC) is standard therapy, whether below-knee deep venous thrombosis (BKDVT) (eg,  involving peroneal, soleus, tibial, or gastrocnemius veins) should routinely receive AC is a matter of debate because of lack of solid supportive evidence. 1-3

The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommends AC for patients with BKDVT who are severely symptomatic or have risk factors for extension of the thrombus but this recommendation is based on low-quality scientific evidence (grade 2C or “weak”).3 For other patients, surveillance ultrasound is recommended in 2 weeks to exclude clot propagation more proximally, and therefore the need for AC.  Of course, decision regarding AC should be made in the context of the patient’s risk of serious bleeding.

The following facts about BKDVT may help in therapeutic decision making:1

  • Most cases resolve spontaneously without AC
  • The incidence of propagation varies from 3%-32%
  • Embolization is unlikely in the absence of extension into proximal veins

Also remember that clot propagation usually occurs within 2 weeks of initial diagnosis. That’s why surveillance ultrasound is recommended during this period when watchful waiting is preferred.

References 

  1. Fleck D, Albadawi H, Wallace A, etal. Below-knee deep vein thrombosis (DVT): diagnostic and treatment patterns. Cariovasc Diagn Ther 2017;7(Suppl3):S134-39. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778527/
  2. Olson EJ, Zander AL, Van Gent J-M, et al. Below-knee deep vein thrombosis: An opportunity to prevent pulmonary embolism? J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014;77:459-63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25159251
  3. Kearon C, Akl EA, Comerota AJ, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease. Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. CHEST 2012;141 (Suppl):e419S-e494S. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315268

 

Should my patient with below-knee venous thrombosis receive anticoagulation?

200 pearls and counting! Take the Pearls4Peers quiz #2!

Multiple choice (choose 1 answer)
1. Which of the following classes of antibiotics is associated with peripheral neuropathy?
a. Penicillins
b. Cephalosporins
c. Macrolides
d. Quinolones

 

 

2. The best time to test for inherited thrombophilia in a patient with acute deep venous thrombosis is…
a. At least 1 week after stopping anticoagulants and a minimum of 3 months of anticoagulation
b. Just before initiating anticoagulants
c. Once anticoagulation takes full effect
d. Any time, if suspected

 

 

3. All the following is true regarding brain MRI abnormalities following a seizure, except…
a. They are observed following status epilepticus only
b. They are often unilateral
c. They may occasionally be associated with leptomeningeal contrast enhancement
d. Abnormalities may persist for weeks or months

 

 

4. Which of the following is included in the quick SOFA criteria for sepsis?
a. Heart rate
b. Serum lactate
c. Temperature
d. Confusion

 

 

5. All of the following regarding iron replacement and infection is true, except…
a. Many common pathogens such as E.coli and Staphylococcus sp. depend on iron for their growth
b. Association of IV iron replacement and increased risk of infection has not been consistently demonstrated
c. A single randomized-controlled trial of IV iron in patients with active infection failed to show increased infectious complications or mortality with replacement
d. All of the above is true

 

True or false

1. Constipation may precede typical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease by 10 years or more
2. Urine Legionella antigen testing is >90% sensitive in legionnaire’s disease
3. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection should be particularly suspected in males over 50 years of age presenting with acute chest pain
4. Urine dipstick for detection of blood is >90% sensitive in identifying patients with rhabdomyolysis and CK >10,000 U/L
5. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for venous thrombophlebitis

 

 

 

Answer key
Multiple choice questions:1=d; 2=a;3=a;4=d;5=c
True or false questions:1=True; 2,3,4,5=False

 

200 pearls and counting! Take the Pearls4Peers quiz #2!

Is there any utility to laboratory testing for inherited thrombophilia or antiphospholipid syndrome in my hospitalized patient with unprovoked acute pulmonary embolism?

There is virtually no utility to obtaining heritable thrombophilia testing in acute hospital setting. In fact, there are potential harms due to false-positive and false-negative results which in turn may lead to increasing anxiety in the patient and added cost due to repeat testing.

As many tests obtained as part of this workup are functional assays—eg, the protein S, C, or antithrombin activity, and activated protein C resistance (often used to screen for factor V Leiden)— they are easily impacted by the physiologic effects of acute thrombosis as well as all anticoagulants.1

More importantly, testing for inherited thrombophilia will not impact management in the acute setting, as decisions regarding duration of anticoagulation are often made later in the outpatient setting. The proper time to evaluate the patient for inherited thrombophilias (if indicated) is at least one week following discontinuation of anticoagulation (minimum 3 months from the time of the index event). 2 

Testing for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) may be considered in this setting though it should be noted that the lupus anticoagulant assay is impacted by nearly every anticoagulant, resulting in frequent false-positive results1, and therefore should be performed before initiation of these agents (or delayed until later if anticoagulation has already begun). A false-positive result has downstream implications as many patients with acute, uncomplicated venous thromboembolism (VTE) are discharged on a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC), and antiphospholipid syndrome is currently considered a relative contraindication to the use of DOACs in VTE.

References
1. Moll, S. “Thrombophilia: Clinical-practical aspects.” J Thromb Thrombolysis 2015;39:367-78. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25724822
2. Connors JM. “Thrombophilia Testing and Venous Thrombosis.” N Engl J Med 2017; 377:1177-1187. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1700365 

Contributed by Hanny Al-Samkari, MD, Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA

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Is there any utility to laboratory testing for inherited thrombophilia or antiphospholipid syndrome in my hospitalized patient with unprovoked acute pulmonary embolism?

In my patient on oral anticoagulation about to undergo coronary stenting, will triple therapy (an oral anticoagulant plus two antiplatelet agents) be necessary or can I get away with double therapy (an oral anticoagulant plus a single antiplatelet agent)?

 

Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who need percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after acute coronary syndrome or for stable angina pose a treatment challenge as oral anticoagulants (OACs) and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) are often used concurrently to decrease the risk of systemic thromboembolism and stent thrombosis. However, “triple therapy”, including aspirin, a P2Y12 inhibitor, and an OAC (eg, warfarin or a direct oral anticoagulant-DOAC), also increases the risk of bleeding, necessitating several recent landmark trials to better address the subject.

Two modest-sized RCTs (WOEST and ISAR-TRIPLE) reported that when compared to triple therapy (DAPT plus warfarin), double therapy (single antiplatelet agent plus INR-targeted warfarin) is associated with reduced risk of bleeding complications without an increased risk of thrombotic events. 1,2

Two larger RCTs, PIONEER AF-PCI and RE-DUAL PCI, studied rivaroxaban and dabigatran, respectively, in patients with non-valvular AF undergoing PCI and found a reduction in bleeding events in patients receiving double therapy (single antiplatelet agent plus DOAC) compared to triple therapy (DAPT plus warfarin), without an increased risk of thrombotic complications. 3,4

Collectively, these studies suggest that it may be safe to treat patients with increased risk of bleeding with double therapy (even immediately following PCI) without an increase in thrombotic events. If triple therapy is elected, duration should be minimized, clopidogrel should be preferred over more potent P2Y12 inhibitors, and a PPI should be considered.

 

References:

  1. Dewilde WJ, Oirbans T, Verheugt FW, et al. Use of clopidogrel with or without aspirin in patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet. 2013;381:1107-15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23415013
  2. Fiedler KA, Maeng M, Mehilli J, et al. Duration of triple therapy in patients requiring oral anticoagulation after drug-eluting stent Implantation: The ISAR-TRIPLE Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65:1619-29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908066
  3. Gibson CM, Mehran R, Bode C, et al. Prevention of bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:2423-2434. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1611594
  4. Cannon CP, Bhatt DL, Oldgren J, et al. Dual antithrombotic therapy with dabigatran after PCI in atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. Published online, Aug, 27, 2017. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1708454

 

Contributed by Amulya Nagarur, MD, Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA

In my patient on oral anticoagulation about to undergo coronary stenting, will triple therapy (an oral anticoagulant plus two antiplatelet agents) be necessary or can I get away with double therapy (an oral anticoagulant plus a single antiplatelet agent)?

Is anticoagulation (AC) therapy recommended for treatment of vein thrombosis of upper extremities?

The short answer is “yes” when deep veins, such as brachial, axillary or subclavian are involved; cephalic and basilic veins are superficial. Although some have suggested that isolated brachial vein thrombosis may be considered at low risk of complication, this assumption has not been corroborated by objective research (1).

There are no randomized trials of AC therapy in patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT).  However,  the American College of Chest Physicians has recommended a 3-month course of AC therapy similar to that of leg DVT for several reasons (1,2):

  •  UEDVT has generally been reported to have complications and consequences comparable to that of leg DVT
  •  Several small cohort studies suggest lower rates of recurrent DVT, PE, and bleeding when UEDVT is treated similar to leg DVT
  •  Known demonstrated benefit of AC therapy in leg DVT

In addition, post-thrombotic syndrome is relatively common (~1 in 5) among patients with UEDVT (3)

References

1.  Hingorani A, Ascher E, Marks N, et al. Morbidity and mortality associated with brachial vein thrombosis. Ann Vasc Surg 2006; 20:297-299. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16779509

2. Kearon C, Akl EA, Comerato AJ, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: American College of Chest Physicians Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Panel. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 2012;141(suppl):419S-494S. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315268

3. Maynard G. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis:A call to arms. JAMA Intern Med 2014;696-698. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24638129

Is anticoagulation (AC) therapy recommended for treatment of vein thrombosis of upper extremities?