200 pearls and counting! Take the Pearls4Peers quiz #2!

Multiple choice (choose 1 answer)
1. Which of the following classes of antibiotics is associated with peripheral neuropathy?
a. Penicillins
b. Cephalosporins
c. Macrolides
d. Quinolones



2. The best time to test for inherited thrombophilia in a patient with acute deep venous thrombosis is…
a. At least 1 week after stopping anticoagulants and a minimum of 3 months of anticoagulation
b. Just before initiating anticoagulants
c. Once anticoagulation takes full effect
d. Any time, if suspected



3. All the following is true regarding brain MRI abnormalities following a seizure, except…
a. They are observed following status epilepticus only
b. They are often unilateral
c. They may occasionally be associated with leptomeningeal contrast enhancement
d. Abnormalities may persist for weeks or months



4. Which of the following is included in the quick SOFA criteria for sepsis?
a. Heart rate
b. Serum lactate
c. Temperature
d. Confusion



5. All of the following regarding iron replacement and infection is true, except…
a. Many common pathogens such as E.coli and Staphylococcus sp. depend on iron for their growth
b. Association of IV iron replacement and increased risk of infection has not been consistently demonstrated
c. A single randomized-controlled trial of IV iron in patients with active infection failed to show increased infectious complications or mortality with replacement
d. All of the above is true


True or false

1. Constipation may precede typical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease by 10 years or more
2. Urine Legionella antigen testing is >90% sensitive in legionnaire’s disease
3. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection should be particularly suspected in males over 50 years of age presenting with acute chest pain
4. Urine dipstick for detection of blood is >90% sensitive in identifying patients with rhabdomyolysis and CK >10,000 U/L
5. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for venous thrombophlebitis




Answer key
Multiple choice questions:1=d; 2=a;3=a;4=d;5=c
True or false questions:1=True; 2,3,4,5=False


200 pearls and counting! Take the Pearls4Peers quiz #2!

Is there any utility to laboratory testing for inherited thrombophilia or antiphospholipid syndrome in my hospitalized patient with unprovoked acute pulmonary embolism?

There is virtually no utility to obtaining heritable thrombophilia testing in acute hospital setting. In fact, there are potential harms due to false-positive and false-negative results which in turn may lead to increasing anxiety in the patient and added cost due to repeat testing.

As many tests obtained as part of this workup are functional assays—eg, the protein S, C, or antithrombin activity, and activated protein C resistance (often used to screen for factor V Leiden)— they are easily impacted by the physiologic effects of acute thrombosis as well as all anticoagulants.1

More importantly, testing for inherited thrombophilia will not impact management in the acute setting, as decisions regarding duration of anticoagulation are often made later in the outpatient setting. The proper time to evaluate the patient for inherited thrombophilias (if indicated) is at least one week following discontinuation of anticoagulation (minimum 3 months from the time of the index event). 2 

Testing for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) may be considered in this setting though it should be noted that the lupus anticoagulant assay is impacted by nearly every anticoagulant, resulting in frequent false-positive results1, and therefore should be performed before initiation of these agents (or delayed until later if anticoagulation has already begun). A false-positive result has downstream implications as many patients with acute, uncomplicated venous thromboembolism (VTE) are discharged on a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC), and antiphospholipid syndrome is currently considered a relative contraindication to the use of DOACs in VTE.

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1. Moll, S. “Thrombophilia: Clinical-practical aspects.” J Thromb Thrombolysis 2015;39:367-78. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25724822
2. Connors JM. “Thrombophilia Testing and Venous Thrombosis.” N Engl J Med 2017; 377:1177-1187. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1700365 


Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!



Is there any utility to laboratory testing for inherited thrombophilia or antiphospholipid syndrome in my hospitalized patient with unprovoked acute pulmonary embolism?