When should I consider steroids in my patient with alcoholic hepatitis?

The short answer is not very often! In the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis (AH), steroids are reserved for a narrow group of patients only, with a 2018 meta-analysis finding a reduction in short-term mortality (average 36%) at 28 days but not at 6 months.1

The most studied scoring system to help clinicians decide whether a patient should get steroids is the Maddrey’s Discriminant Function (MDF), which is based on the prothrombin and total bilirubin. A score of ≥32 indicates severe disease and potential response to steroids, while a score <32 indicates mild to moderate disease, for which the risk of steroids (e.g. infection, worsening ulcer disease/bleeding, and glucose intolerance) may outweigh any potential benefit.

However, even with a score ≥32, the likelihood of patient adherence to 28 days of steroid therapy, risk of infection and other steroid-related complications should be carefully considered in individual patients. It’s also important to note that a 2008 meta-analysis showed that patients with a very high MDF score of >54 actually had higher mortality rates with steroid therapy, possibly related to the lack of response in very advanced disease as well as high infection risk.2

Many clinicians also use the Lille’s score to help determine whether a patient is a responder after 7 days of initial therapy. A score >0.45 (calculated based on bilirubin levels at day 0 and 7 and other initial labs and age) indicates poor response and that steroids may be stopped due to its risks.3

Based on the result of a small retrospective study, Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis (GAH) score has also been suggested as a means of further defining patients with a MDF ≥32 who may potentially benefit from steroids (ie, score ≥9).4

Bonus pearl: Did you know that pentoxifylline, a tumor necrosis factor (TNF), has generally not been found to be effective in the treatment of AH?5,6

Contributed by Tom Wang, MD, Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA.

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References

  1. Louvet A, et al. “Corticosteroids reduce risk of death within 28 days for patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis, compared with pentoxifylline or Placebo—a meta-analysis of individual data from controlled trials.” Gastroenterology 2018; 155: 458-468. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0016508518344950
  2. Rambaldi A, et al. “Systematic review: glucocorticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis–a Cochrane Hepato‐Biliary Group systematic review with meta‐analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomized clinical trials.” Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 2008; 27: 1167-1178. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2008.03685.x
  3. Louvet A, et al. “The Lille model: a new tool for therapeutic strategy in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis treated with steroids.” Hepatology 2007; 45: 1348-1354. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17518367
  4. Forrest EH, et al. “Analysis of factors predictive of mortality in alcoholic hepatitis and derivation and validation of the Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score.” Gut 2005; 54: 1174-1179. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774903/
  5. Thursz MR, et al. “Prednisolone or pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis.” N Engl J Med 2015; 372: 1619-1628. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1412278
  6. Parker R. “Systematic review: pentoxifylline for the treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis.” Alimentary Pharm Therapeutics 2018; 37: 845-854. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.12279

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

When should I consider steroids in my patient with alcoholic hepatitis?

What’s the evidence that people without symptoms can transmit Covid-19 to those around them?

Rapid spread of Covid-19 virus has been attributed in large part to its ease of transmission from person to person even before symptoms develop, particularly since an estimated 18% to 75% of patients testing positive for Covid-19 have no symptoms. 1-4

Transmission before onset of symptoms (presymptomatic): Modeled estimates for the percentage of transmissions that occur from presymptomatic patients range from 37% to as high as 62% based on studies of patients in the cities of Tianjin and Guangzhou in China, as well as Singapore.5-7 Infectiousness appears to begin within 1-3 days prior to symptoms.8-10

Transmission when symptoms never develop (asymptomatic): Asymptomatic transmission was invoked in a familial cluster in Anyang, China where 5 patients developed Covid-19 after a 6th asymptomatic family member returned home from Wuhan, China. The asymptomatic patient never developed symptoms—such as fever or respiratory symptom— and had a normal chest CT, but briefly tested positive for Covid-19 by RT-PCR before testing negative later.11

It’s important to point out that up to ~75% of patients who are initially “asymptomatic” later develop symptoms. 12-14 So what we often call “asymptomatic” may actually be “presymptomatic.”

Transmission of Covid-19 before onset of symptoms is in distinct contrast to SARS, another coronavirus disease, which was transmitted only when a person was symptomatic and was easier to control. This unique property among coronaviruses may be explained by the high tropism of Covid-19 virus not only for the lungs (as in case of SARS virus) but also for the upper respiratory tract.15,16 As such, Covid-19 behaves more like influenza viruses whose upper respiratory tract binding is thought to promote their rapid transmission even before symptoms develop.17  No wonder, Covid-19 spread like wild fire!

 

Coauthor, Bruce Tiu, Harvard Medical Student, Boston, MA

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References

 

  1. Mizumoto K, Kagaya K, Zarebski A, et al. Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus diseae 2019 (COID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020. Euro Surveill.2020;25(10):pii=2000180 https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180?ftag=MSF0951a18
  2. Kimaball, A, Hatfield KM, Arons M, et al. Asymptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in residents of a long-term care skilled nursing facility—King County, Washington, March 2020. MMWR 2020;69:377-381. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6913e1.htm
  3. Hu Z, Song C, Xu C, et al. Clinical characteristics of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened among close contacts in Nanjing, China. Sci China Life Sci 2020 Mar 4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32146694
  4. Day M. Covid-19: identifying and isolating asymptomatic people helped eliminate virus in Italian village. BMJ 2020;368 https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m1165
  5. He X, Lau E, Wu P, et al. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. medRxiv. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.15.20036707v2
  6. Ferretti L, Wymant C, Kendall M, et al. Quantifying SARS-CoV-2 transmission suggests epidemic control with digital contact tracing [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 31]. Science. 2020; eabb6936. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/03/30/science.abb6936
  7. Ganyani T, Kremer C, Chen D, et al. Estimating the generation interval for COVID-19 based on symptom onset data. medRxiv. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.05.20031815v1
  8. Wei WE, Li ZB, Chiew CJ, et al. Presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 — Singapore, January 23–March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 1 April 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6914e1.htm
  9. He X, Lau E, Wu P, et al. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. medRxiv. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.15.20036707v2
  10. Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(10):970–971. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2001468
  11. Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, et al. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Feb 21]. JAMA. 2020;e202565. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762028
  12. Kimball A, Hatfield KM, Arons M, et al. Asymptomatic and Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Residents of a Long-Term Care Skilled Nursing Facility — King County, Washington, March 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69:377–381 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6913e1.htm
  13. Chen, C. “What We Need to Understand About Asymptomatic Carriers if We’re Going to Beat Coronavirus”. ProPublica. 2020. https://www.propublica.org/article/what-we-need-to-understand-about-asymptomatic-carriers-if-were-going-to-beat-coronavirus
  14. WHO. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). 2020. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf
  15. Woelfel R, Corman VM, Guggemos W, et al. Clinical presentation and virological assessment of hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in a travel-associated transmission cluster. medRxiv. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.05.20030502v1
  16. Peiris JS, Chu CM, Cheng VC, et al. Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study. Lancet. 2003;361(9371):1767–1772. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(03)13412-5/fulltext
  17. van Riel D, den Bakker MA, Leijten LM, et al. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses. Am J Pathol. 2010;176(4):1614–1618. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/6/20-0357_article

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

What’s the evidence that people without symptoms can transmit Covid-19 to those around them?

How common are neurological symptoms in patients with Covid-19 infection?

Although we usually think of it as primarily a respiratory tract disease, neurological manifestations with Covid-19 are not at all uncommon,1-6 occurring in over one-third of hospitalized patients with Covid-19 according to one medRxiv report.1

In a Chinese study1 involving 214 hospitalized patients with Covid-19, 36.4% had 1 or more neurological symptoms, with the majority involving the central nervous system (CNS) (25.0%), of which the most common complaints were dizziness (17%) and headache (13.0%). Some patients (9.0%) had cranial nerve/peripheral nerve complaints of which the most common were difficulty with taste (hypogeusia) (6.0%) and sense of smell (hyposmia) (5.0%).  A fewer number of patients had impaired consciousness, acute cerebrovascular disease (including ischemic stroke and cerebral hemorrhage). Although not strictly-speaking a neurological manifestation, the study also reported “muscle injury” in ~20.0% of patients     (defined as myalgia plus CK >200 IU/L).

Descriptions of Covid-19 encephalopathy, including one associated with acute hemorrhagic necrotizing process, are also beginning to appear in the literature.3-5 Reports of “Neuro-Covid-19 units” in Italy further underlines the common occurrence of neurological symptoms in these patients.6

More than one mechanism for neurological complications in Covid-19 are likely,  including:1-2

  1. Direct viral invasion into the CNS which could explain the associated headache, high fever, vomiting, convulsions, and consciousness disorders. Some have reported normal CSF parameters but a report of PCR positive CSF suggests direct injury from the virus itself.2 Covid-19 virus may gain access to the CNS through direct invasion of neuronal pathways (eg. olfactory nerve given recent reports of difficulty with sense of smell) or through blood circulation.
  2. Indirect CNS injury through extreme systemic derangements such as hypoxia, or immune/inflammatory response-related injury (eg, through cytokines, hypercoagulability related to infection). Some have also posited that binding of Covid-19 virus to ACE2 may cause abnormally elevated blood pressure and increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhage.2

The fact that Covid-19 is so versatile and affects the nervous system as well shouldn’t surprise us. Neurological complications have been reported with couple of other related respiratory Coronaviruses such as those of SARS and MERS.2

 

Bonus pearl: Did you know that as early 1970-80s some coronaviruses were shown to cause “nasoencephalopathy” when injected intranasally in mice with subsequent spread to the CNS through the olfactory nerve?7 Maybe we shouldn’t be too surprised that sense of smell is impaired in some Covid-19 patients. If we could only stop the virus at the nose!

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References

  1. Mao L, Wang M, Chen S, et al. Neurological manifestations of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective case series study. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.22.20026500v1
  2. Wu Y, Xu X, Chen Z, et al. Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2020, March 30. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889159120303573
  3. Xiang et al. 2020. First case of 2019 novel Coronavirus disease with encephalitis. ChinaXiv, T202003 (2020), p. 00015 (obtained from reference 2).
  4. Poyiadji N, Shain G, Noujaim D, et al. COVID-19-associated acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy: CT and MRI features. Radiology 2020 https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2020201187
  5. Filatov A, Sharma P, Hindi F, et al. Neurological complications of coronavirus (COVID-19): encephalopathy. Cureus 12(3): e7352. DOI 10.7759/cureus.7352 https://www.cureus.com/articles/29414-neurological-complications-of-coronavirus-disease-covid-19-encephalopathy
  6. Talan J. COVID-19: Neurologists in Italy to Colleagues in US: Look for poorly-defined neurologic conditions in patients with the Coronavirus. Neurology Today 2020, March 27. https://journals.lww.com/neurotodayonline/blog/breakingnews/pages/post.aspx?PostID=920
  7. Perlman S, Jacobsen G, Afifi A. Spread of a neurotropic murine Coronavirus into the CNS via the trigeminal and olfactory nerves. Virology 1989;170:556-560 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0042682289904467

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

How common are neurological symptoms in patients with Covid-19 infection?

Key clinical pearls on the management of patients suspected of or diagnosed with Covid-19 in the outpatient setting

Here are some key points to remember when managing patients with Covid-19 symptoms in the outpatient setting.  These points are primarily based on the CDC guidelines and the current literature. They may be particularly useful to primary care providers (PCP) who do not have ready access to Covid-19 test kits or radiographic imaging in the diagnosis of patients suspected of or diagnosed with Covid-19.

  • Isolation precautions. 1,6-7 Minimize chances of exposure by placing a facemask on the patient and placing them in an examination room with the door closed. Use standard and transmission-based precautions including contact and airborne protocols when caring for the patient. Put on an isolation gown and N95 filtering facepiece respirator or higher. Use a facemask if a respirator is not available. Put on face shield or goggles if available. Adhere to strict hand hygiene practices with the use of alcohol-based hand rub with greater than 60% ethanol or 70% isopropanol before and after all patient contact. If there is no access to alcohol-based hand sanitizers, the CDC recommends hand washing with soap and water as the next best practice.

 

  • Risk Factors.2-3 Older patients and patients with severe underlying medical conditions seem to be at higher risk for developing more serious complications from Covid-19 illness. Known risk factors for severe Covid-19 include age over 60 years, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, and immunosuppression.

 

  • Symptoms.2,4,8,9 Reported illnesses have ranged from mild symptoms to severe illness and death. These symptoms may appear after a 2- to 14-day incubation period.
    • Fever at any time 88-99%
    • Cough 59-79%
    • Dyspnea 19-55%
    • Fatigue 23-70%
    • Myalgias 15%-44%
    • Sputum production 23-34%
    • Nausea or vomiting 4%-10%
    • Diarrhea 3%-10%
    • Headache 6%-14%
    • Sore throat 14%
    • Rhinorrhea/nasal congestion (4.8%)
    • Anosmia (undocumented percentage)

 

  • Treatment for mild illness.5 Most patients have mild illness and are able to recover at home. Counsel patients suspected to have Covid-19 to begin a home quarantine staying in one room away from other people as much as possible. Patients should drink lots of fluids to stay hydrated and rest. Over the counter medicines may help with symptoms. There is controversy regarding the safety of NSAIDs in Covid-19 (See related P4P pearl). Generally, symptoms last a few days and  patients get better after a week. There is no official guidance from the CDC or other reliable sources on how often a PCP should check in with a patient confirmed with Covid-19 and in quarantine. Please use good judgement and utilize telehealth capabilities via phone call, video call, etc… if possible.

 

  • Treatment for severe illness.3 Patients should be transferred immediately to the nearest hospital. If there is no transfer service available, a family member with appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) precautions, should drive patient to nearest hospital for critical care services.

 

  • Ending home isolation. 5
    • Without testing: Patients can stop isolation without access to a test result after 3 things have happened. 1) No fever for at least 72 hours. This is 3 full days of no fever and without the use of medication that reduces fever; 2) Respiratory symptoms have improved.; and 3) At least 7 days have passed since symptoms first appeared.
    • With testing. 5 Home isolation may be ended after all of the following 3 criteria have been met: 1) No fever for at least 72 hours. This is 3 full days of no fever and without the use of medication that reduces fever; 2) Respiratory symptoms have improved; and 3) Negative results from at least 2 consecutive nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected more than 24 hours apart.

To all the healthcare providers out there, please be safe and stay healthy!

 

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Contributed by Erica Barnett, Harvard Medical Student, Boston, MA.

 

References:

  1. CDC. Evaluating and Testing Persons for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/hcp/clinical-criteria.html
  2. CDC. Symptoms and Testing. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/index.html
  3. World Health Organization. Operational Considerations for case management for COVID-19 in health facility and community. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331492/WHO-2019-nCoV-HCF_operations-2020.1-eng.pdf
  4. Partners in Health. Resource Guide 1: Testing, Tracing, community management. https://www.pih.org/sites/default/files/2020-03/PIH_Guide_COVID_Part_I_Testing_Tracing_Community_Managment_3_28.pdf
  5. CDC. Caring for someone at home. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/care-for-someone.html
  6. CDC. Using PPE. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/using-ppe.html
  7. CDC. Hand Washing. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/hand-hygiene.html
  8. Harvard Health Publishing. COVID-19 Basics. https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/covid-19-basics
  9. Guan W, Ni Z, Hu Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of Coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020, March 6. DOI:10.1056/NEJM022002032 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32109013

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

Key clinical pearls on the management of patients suspected of or diagnosed with Covid-19 in the outpatient setting

Why might convalescent sera or plasma transfusion therapy be effective in the treatment of patients with Covid-19?

Of the myriad therapeutic approaches currently under consideration in our fight against Covid-19, convalescent sera/plasma therapy (CSPT) is particularly promising. The principle behind CSPT is to provide immediate immunity to susceptible people by administering the serum or plasma—therefore antibodies—of individuals who have successfully recovered from Covid-19.1

The theory behind using antibody-containing blood products to treat infections is by no means new and goes back to the 1890s when serum from exposed animals who recovered from disease was used to protect healthy animals against tetanus and diphtheria.2

Historically, CSPT has been used against poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, and influenza, and more recently in a smaller number of patients with SARS, H5N1 and H7N9 avian influenza and Ebola.1,3-8 A 2015 systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of 32 studies involving severe acute respiratory infections of viral etiology (including influenza and SARS) found a reduction in mortality (odds ratio, 0.25, 95% C.I. 0.14-0.45), particularly when CSPT was administered early into the illness.3

Experience with 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic: A meta-analysis of 1703 hospitalized patients (Yes, scientists performed wonderful studies back then too despite a pandemic!) during the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic demonstrated decreased mortality with administration of convalescent blood products with crude case-fatality rates dropping by one-half (16% vs 37% in controls)! Notably, patients who were treated within 4 days of pneumonia had one-third the case-fatality rate compared to those treated later.3

Experience with 2002-2004 SARS epidemic: A retrospective study from Hong Kong involving 80 patients with SARS (caused by another coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1) not responding to antibiotics/steroids/interferon but receiving CSPT reported a lower mortality rate with near significant (P=0.08) improvement in outcome and reduced mortality in the group that received CSPT before day 14 of the illness (6.3% vs 21.9%).4

What about Covid-19? A very preliminary report out of China involving 5 mechanically-ventilated patients with ARDS and rapid progression despite corticosteroids and antivirals found clinical improvement in all 5 patients. More specifically, body temperature normalized within 3 days in 4 of 5 patients and ARDS resolved in 4 patients at 12 days following transfusion, 2 patients were in stable condition and 3 patients were eventually discharged from the hospital.9

Of course, we should be mindful of potential adverse reactions due to CSP as well, such as allergic reactions, infections, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), and theoretical risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE).1 Only properly designed clinical studies can shed light on the safety and efficacy of CSPT in Covid-19.

Nevertheless, the historical data on the use of CSPT in serious viral infections is encouraging. In fact, the first US studies of CSPT in Covid-19 have already been approved by the FDA!10 Stay tuned!

Bonus pearl: Did you know that serum and plasma both refer to the noncellular fluid part of blood, but serum is collected after coagulation factors (fibrinogen) have been removed. Fortunately, both contain antibodies!

 

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Contributed by Bruce Tiu, Harvard Medical Student, Boston, MA.

References:

  1. Casadevall A, Pirofski L. The convalescent sera for containing COVID-19. J Clin Invest. 2020;130(4):1545-1548. doi: 10.1172/JCI138003 https://www.jci.org/articles/view/138003
  2. Eibl MM. History of immunoglobulin replacement. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008;28(4):737–viii. doi:10.1016/j.iac.2008.06.004 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0889856108000702
  3. Mair-Jenkins J, Saavedra-Campos M, Baillie K, et al. The effectiveness of convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory infections of viral etiology: A systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2015; 211: 80-90. https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/211/1/80/799341
  4. Luke TC, Kilbane EM, Jackson JL, et al. Meta-Analysis: Convalescent Blood Products for Spanish Influenza Pneumonia: A Future H5N1 Treatment?. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:599–609. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-145-8-200610170-00139 https://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/729754/meta-analysis-convalescent-blood-products-spanish-influenza-pneumonia-future-h5n1
  5. Cheng Y, Wong R, Soo YO, et al. Use of convalescent plasma therapy in SARS patients in Hong Kong. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;24(1):44–46. doi:10.1007/s10096-004-1271-9 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10096-004-1271-9
  6. Zhou B, Zhong N, Guan Y. Treatment with convalescent plasma for influenza A (H5N1) infection. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1450–1. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc070359 https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc070359
  7. Chen L, Xiong J, Bao L, et al. Convalescent plasma as a potential therapy for COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;20: 398-400. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30141-9/fulltext
  8. Wu XX, Gao HN, Wu HB, Peng XM, Ou HL, Li LJ. Successful treatment of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) infection using convalescent plasma. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;41:3–5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.10.009 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26482389
  9. Shen C, Wang Z, Zhao F, et al. Treatment of 5 Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 With Convalescent Plasma. JAMA. Published online March 27, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4783 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2763983
  10. https://thehill.com/regulation/healthcare/490768-first-us-coronavirus-patients-being-treated-with-plasma-therapy.

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

 

 

 

 

Why might convalescent sera or plasma transfusion therapy be effective in the treatment of patients with Covid-19?

How long are the symptoms of hospitalized patients with Covid-19 expected to last?

Although most patients with Covid-19 may have mild or no symptoms, those who are ill enough to be hospitalized often have fever, cough, or shortness of breath that lasts for 2 weeks or longer. 

Fever: A Chinese study 1 involving 137 successfully discharged hospitalized patients reported that fever (37.3° C or 99.1° F or higher) lasted a median of 12 days (range 8-13 days). It’s important to point out that nearly one-quarter of these patients were also placed on corticosteroids during their hospitalization which might have resulted in the resolution of fever sooner and therefore altered the “natural course” of Covid-19.  In a smaller study from Singapore2 involving generally less ill hospitalized patients, fever didn’t usually last as long (median 4 days, range 0-15 days). 

Cough/shortness of breath: Cough may last nearly 3 weeks (median 19 days) while shortness of breath can go on for about 2 weeks (median 13 days).1

All symptoms: Even among those who are less ill and do not require supplemental oxygen, it may take nearly 2 weeks (median 12 days, range 5-24 days) for all the Covid-19-related symptoms (defined as fever, cough, and shortness of breath, sore throat, diarrhea, and rhinorrhea) to resolve.2 

It goes without saying that recovery from Covid-19 among hospitalized patients may be slow. In a Seattle study3 involving hospitalized patients who were admitted to the ICU, the median duration on the ventilator was 10 days (IQR 7-12 days), and the median length of hospital stay was 17 days (IQR 16-23 days).

Hopefully, as we find effective anti-Covid-19 drugs, the duration of these symptoms and length of hospitalization can be significantly reduced. Stay tuned!

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References

  1. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COCID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2020;395:1054-62. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30566-3/fulltext
  2. Young BE, Ong SWX, Kalimuddin S, et al. Epidemiologic features and clinical course of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA 2020; March 3, 2020 (corrected March 20). https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762688
  3. Bhatraju PK, Ghassemieh BJ, Nichols M, et al. Covid-19 in critically ill patients in the seattle region—Case series. N Engl J Med 2020; March 30. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2004500

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

How long are the symptoms of hospitalized patients with Covid-19 expected to last?

What is the role of prone ventilation in patients with Covid-19 and ARDS?

A 2017 guideline strongly recommends the use of prone ventilation for 12+ hours daily in individuals with severe ARDS (1). A JAMA article gave similar recommendations for critically ill patients with COVID-19 (2).

The recommendations are often based on a NEJM 2013 randomized-controlled study involving 466 patients with severe ARDS (3). While previous research had demonstrated improved oxygenation in the prone position (4), this study demonstrated a significant survival benefit (3).  Mortality at 28 days was 16.0% in prone patients versus 32.8% in supine patients (p<0.001; HR 0.39 with 95% CI, 0.29 – 0.67) (3). Mortality was also lower in prone patients at 90 days (3).  A meta-analysis of 4 additional randomized-controlled trials confirmed the survival benefits (1). 

In patients with Covid-19 and ARDS, a small retrospective study involving 12 patients showed a significant association between prone positioning and lung recruitability (ie, lung tissue in which aeration can be restored) (p = 0.020) (5).

Physiologically, numerous mechanisms have been proposed for these findings, including the possbility that while blood flow consistently favors the dorsal alveoli regardless of position, the prone position allows dorsal alveoli to reopen, improving ventilation/perfusion matching (6). 

Of note, some institutions find difficulties with prone positioning, including higher rates of pressure sores and endotracheal tube obstruction (1).

 

Contributed by Grant Steele, Harvard Medical Student, Boston, MA.

 

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References:

1. Fan E, Del Sorbo L, Goligher E, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/Society of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice guideline: mechanical ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.” Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017;195:1253-1263. https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/rccm.201703-0548ST 
2. Murthy S, Gomersall C, & Fowler R. Care for critically ill patients with COVID-19. JAMA – Published online March 11, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3633 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762996
3. Guérin C, Reignier J, Richard J-C, et al. Prone positioning in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2013;368:2159-2168. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1214103
4. Abroug F, Ouanes-Besbes L, Elatrous S, et al. The effect of prone positioning in acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury: a meta-analysis. Areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research. Intensive Care Medicine – Published online March 19, 2008. doi: 10.1007/s00134-008-1062-3 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00134-008-1062-3
5. Pan C, Chen L, Lu C, et al. Lung Recruitability in SARS-CoV-2 Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Single-center, Observational Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med – Published online March 23, 2020. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202003-0527LE. https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1164/rccm.202003-0527LE 
6. Nyrén S, Mure M, Jacobsson H, et al. Pulmonary perfusion is more uniform in the prone than in the supine position: scintigraphy in healthy humans. J Appl Physiol 1999;86:1135-1141. https://www.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/jappl.1999.86.4.1135

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

What is the role of prone ventilation in patients with Covid-19 and ARDS?

5 Covid-19 facts worth keeping in mind as we deal with our pandemic anxiety

As an infectious disease physician who had the privilege of caring for many patients during the unsettling times of the early HIV epidemic and the more recent H1N1 pandemic influenza, I fully understand the widespread anxiety the current Covid-19 pandemic has inflicted on our society.

Here are 5 scientific facts that may be worth remembering as we try to deal with our pandemic anxiety.

 
1. On transmission in the community: For sure, Covid-19 is transmitted in the community but I am glad that it behaves more like influenza which is primarily contracted through close personal contact and droplets, and less like measles or chickenpox which are considered airborne with viral particles travelling lingering in the air for long periods of time. On average, a patient with Covid-19 may infect 2-3 susceptible contacts vs as many as 12 or more in the case of patients with measles or chickenpox (1, 2).

 
2. On transmission in healthcare settings: For sure, Covid-19 can be transmitted in the healthcare settings, just like other coronaviruses, such severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses. But the good news is that, in the absence of aerosol-producing procedures (eg, intubation, nebulizer therapy) it doesn’t seem to behave like an airborne virus (see above) and adherence to droplet and contact precautions, including donning of masks, gowns, eye protection and hand hygiene has been effective (3, 4).

 
3. On surface viability after cleaning/disinfection: For sure, the novel 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the cause of Covid-19, can be found on surfaces outside of the body. But the good news is that, in contrast to hardy viruses such as norovirus, it succumbs to common disinfection and environmental cleaning procedures. That’s because  coronaviruses have a lipid envelope that easily falls apart under usual cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. That means that simple handwashing with soap and water (minimum 20 seconds), alcohol containing hand hygiene products, detergents and diluted bleach should easily inactivate it (5-9) and that’s good!

 
4. On the course of Covid-19: For sure, Covid-19 can make people very sick and, tragically, may be fatal on occasion. But compared to diseases caused by other recent respiratory coronaviruses such as MERS or SARS, the overall mortality associated with Covid-19 is much lower (often ~ 2.0-3.0% or lower vs 36.0% for MERS and ~10.0% for SARS) (1). In fact, the majority of patients (~80%) may have no symptoms or only have mild disease (10). I am thankful that we are not dealing with a transmissible respiratory virus that has mortality rates like that of MERS.

 
5. On the timing of this pandemic: We are fortunate that this is 2020 not 1918-19 when a particularly virulent form of influenza, dubbed as “the mother of all pandemics” infected some 500 million people (a third of the world’s population at the time) and accounted for an estimated 50 million deaths (11). Imagine fighting a pandemic without the technology to identify its cause. Imagine fighting a pandemic without access to the miracles of modern science and medicine, including antibiotics for secondary bacterial pneumonia, artificial ventilation, dialysis, ICU support, and capability to screen for an infectious agent.  Imagine fighting a pandemic without scientific tools to develop effective antimicrobials or vaccines. Imagine fighting a pandemic without the luxury of the internet.

 
As unprepared as we all feel in combatting Covid-19, I take solace in the fact that our armamentarium and collective determination to mount an effective response to this pandemic has never been better. Even during these uncertain times, I reflect on what could have been and remain optimistic. Be safe!

 

 

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References:
1. Fauci AS, Lane HC, Redfield RR. Covid-19—Navigating the uncharted. N Eng J Med 2020. DOI:10.1056/NEJMe2002387. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMe2002387
2. Delamater PL, Street EJ, Leslie TF, et al. Complexity of the basic reproduction number (R0). Emerg infect Dis 2019;25:1-4. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/1/17-1901_article
3. Seto WH, Tsang D, Yung RWH, et al. Effectiveness of precautions against droplets and contact in prevention of nosocomial transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Lancet 2003;361:1519-20. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673603131686
4. Ng K, Poon BH, Puar THK, et al. COVID-19 and the risk to health care workers: a case report. Ann Intern Med. 2020, March 16. https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2763329/covid-19-risk-health-care-workers-case-report
5. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker, Morris DH, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.09.20033217
6. Kampf G. Efficacy of ethanol against viruses in hand disinfection. J Hosp Infect 2018;98:331-38. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195670117304693
7. Grayson ML, Melvani S, Druce J, et al. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:285-91. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19115974/
8. Service RF. Does disinfecting surfaces really prevent the spread of coronavirus? Science 2020, March 12. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/03/does-disinfecting-surfaces-really-prevent-spread-coronavirus
9. CDC. Norovirus. https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/norovirus/index.html
10. Guan W, Ni Z, Hu Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of Coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020. First published Feb 28, 220, last updated March 6, 2020. https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
11. Taubenberger JK, Morens DM. 1918 influenza: the mother of all pandemics. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12:15-22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3291398/

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

 

 

5 Covid-19 facts worth keeping in mind as we deal with our pandemic anxiety

Do statins have a role in treating novel Coronavirus infection, COVID-19?

There is currently no firm clinical evidence that statins improve the outcome of COVID-19. However, there are some theoretical reasons for believing that statins may have a role in the treatment of COVID-19.  That’s because beyond their cholesterol lowering action, statins may also have clinically relevant anti-inflammatory and antiviral (pleotropic) properties.  

Anti-inflammatory: Anti-inflammatory effect of statins is well known and is thought to occur through a variety of molecular pathways of the innate and adaptive immune systems as well as attenuation of several circulating proinflammatory cytokines.1 Although observational studies have suggested that statins lower hospitalization and mortality among outpatients hospitalized with infection, pneumonia or sepsis, several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have failed to show any mortality benefit among ICU patients with sepsis and ARDS treated with statins.2

In contrast, an RCT involving patients with sepsis (majority with pneumonia, mean CRP 195 mg/dL) reported significant reduction in progression to severe sepsis among statin-naïve patients  placed on atorvastatin 40 mg/day at the time of hospitalization.3 So, perhaps timing of statin therapy before florid sepsis and ARDS is an important factor.  

Some have suggested that statins may decrease the fatality rate of a related Coronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) virus, by blunting exuberant inflammatory response that may result in a fatal outcome. 4

Antiviral: Statins may also have antiviral properties, including activity against influenza, hepatitis C virus, Zika and dengue viruses.2,5 Whether statins have activity against coronaviruses such as the agent of COVID-19 is unclear at this time.

It’s interesting to note that cholesterol may have an important role in the membrane attachment, fusion and replication of many enveloped viruses, including influenza.5 Covid-19 is also an enveloped virus.

So what do we do? Based on the current data, it makes sense to continue statins in patients who have known clinical indications for their use and no obvious contraindications because of COVID-19 (eg. rhabdomyolysis).6 As for statin-naïve patients, particularly those in early stages of sepsis and increased risk of cardiovascular events, benefit may outweigh the risk.  Only proper clinical studies will give us more definitive answers.

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that lipids make up a major component of the envelope in enveloped viruses and that cholesterol makes up nearly one-half of total lipid and over 10% the total mass of influenza viruses?

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References

  1. Tousoulis D, Psarros C, Demosthenous M, et al. Innate and adaptive inflammation as a therapeutic target in vascular diseae: The emerging role of statins. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;63:2491-2502. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735109714011553?via%3Dihub
  2. Fedson DS. Treating the host response to emerging virus diseases: lessons learned from sepsis, pneumonia, influenza and Ebola. Ann Transl Med 2016;4:421. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5124618/pdf/atm-04-21-421.pdf
  3. Patel JM, Snaith C, Thickette DR. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 40 mg/day of atorvastatin in reducing the severity of sepsis in ward patients (ASEPSIS Trial) Critical Care 2012;16:R231. https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/cc11895
  4. Espano E, Nam JH, Song EJ, et al. Lipophilic statins inhibit Zika virus production in Vero cells. Scientific Reports 2019;9:11461. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-47956-1
  5. Sun X, Whittaker GR. Role for influenza virus envelope cholesterol in virus entry and infection. J Virol 2003;77:12543-12551. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC262566/
  6. Virani SS. Is there a role for statin therapy in acute viral infections. Am Coll Cardiol March 18, 2020. https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2020/03/18/15/09/is-there-a-role-for-statin-therapy-in-acute-viral-infections-covid-19

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

Do statins have a role in treating novel Coronavirus infection, COVID-19?

Why might hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin be effective against the novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2/Covid-19?

Repurposing of older drugs such as chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (HC) and more recently, azithromycin (AZ), has received much attention recently in the treatment of Covid-19. Both HC and AZ have immune modulating and antiviral activity that may potentially be effective in our fight against Covid-19.

 
Chloroquine/HC: Chloroquine is an old drug used for its antimalarial activity as well as for its immune modulation and anti-inflammatory properties. It is active in mice against a variety of viruses, including some enteroviruses, Zika virus, and influenza A H5N1 (1). Both chloroquine and HC are active in vitro against Covid-19, though HC appears to be more active (2).

 
Azithromycin: A macrolide often used for treatment of bacterial respiratory tract infections but also with anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity. Azithromycin has been shown to augment interferon response in rhinovirus-infected bronchial epithelial cells as well as in an experimental mouse model of asthma exacerbation (3,4). It also has activity against Zika virus (5). As recently as 2016, some authors opined that macrolides may be useful in pandemic influenza characterized by excessive inflammatory cytokine production because of their anti-inflammatory and interferon-boosting potential (6).

 
March 2020 French clinical trial: A small non-randomized clinical trial involving 36 confirmed Covid-19 patients (mean age 45 y) reported that HC (200 mg 3x/day x 10 days) was associated with rapid viral clearance from nasopharynx, often within 3-6 days (7). The effect was even more pronounced when AZ (500 mg 1st day, followed by 250 mg daily x 4 days) was added in 6 patients.

It’s worth emphasizing that most subjects in this study were either asymptomatic (17%) or had mild disease with upper respiratory tract infection symptoms only (61%). Pneumonia was diagnosed in only 6 patients.  A significant number of patients in the treatment arm also dropped out of the study, some due to ICU transfer.

 
Although such preliminary reports appear promising, the proof of the efficacy and safety of HC and/or AZ in the treatment of Covid-19 awaits larger properly designed clinical studies. Stay tuned!

 

 

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References
1. Touret F, de Lamballerie X. Of chloroquine and COVID-19. Antiviral Research 2020;177. 104762. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32147496
2. Yao X, Ye F, Zhang M, et al. In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respirartory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clin Infect Dis 2020, March 9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32150618
3. Menzel M, Akbarshai H, Bjermer L, et al. Azithromycin induces anti-viral effects in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients. Scientific Reports 2016;6:28698. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4923851/
4. Menzel M, Akbarshai H, Uller L. Azithromycin exhibits interferon-inducing properties in an experimental mouse model of asthma exacerbation. Eur Resp J 2015;46:PA5095. https://erj.ersjournas.com/content/46/suppl_59/PA5095
5. Retallack H, Di Lullo E, Knopp AC, et al. Zika virus cell tropism in the developing human brain and inhibition by azithromycin. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 2016;113:14408-13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5167169/
6. Porter JD, Watson J, Roberts LR, et al. Identification of novel macrolides with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and type I and III-IFN-augmenting activity in airway epithelium. J Antimicrob Chemother 2016;71:2767-81. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5031920/
7. Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19:results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents—In Press 17 March 2020-DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949 . https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924857920300996

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

Why might hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin be effective against the novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2/Covid-19?