Should male patients with suspected urinary tract infection routinely undergo a prostate exam?

Yes! That’s because any urinary tract infection (UTI) in men has the potential for prostatic involvement1 —-as high as 83% by one report2.  

To make the matters more confusing, patients with acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) often present with symptoms just like those of UTI such as urinary frequency, dysuria, malaise, fever, and myalgias3.  In the elderly, atypical presentation is not uncommon (eg, confusion, incontinence, fall)4.  Under these circumstances, bacteriuria and pyuria may also be related to ABP and the prostate exam should be an important part of your evaluation.

Although the sensitivity of prostate tenderness on digital rectal exam varies widely for ABP (9%-100%), a painful exam should raise suspicion for ABP, and by itself may be an independent predictor for clinical and bacteriologic failure of therapy1. Along with tenderness, fluctuance of prostate, particularly in the setting of voiding difficulties and longer duration of symptoms, may also suggest the presence of prostatic abscess5,6

But be gentle when performing a prostate exam and don’t massage it because you could potentially cause bacteremia and worsening of sepsis!1,7

References

  1. Etienne M, Chavanet P, Sibert L, et al. Acute bacterial prostatitis: heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria and management. Retrospective multicentric analysis of 371 patients diagnosed with acute prostatitis. BMC Infectious Diseases 2008;8:12. https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1471-2334-8-12?site=bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com
  2. Ulleryd P, Zackrisson B, Aus G, et al. Prostatic involvement in men with febrile urinary tract infection as measured by serum prostate-specific antigen and transrectal ultrasonography. BJU Int 1999;84:470-4. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.00164.x/pdf
  3. Krieger JN, Nyberg L, Nickel JC. NIH consensus definition and classification. JAMA 1999;282:236-37. http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/1030245
  4. Harper M, Fowlis. Management of urinary tract infections in men. Trends in Urology Gynaecology & Sexual Health. January/February 2007. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tre.8/pdf
  5. Lee DS, Choe HS, Kim HY, et al. Acute bacterial prostatitis and abscess formation. BMC Urology 2016;16:38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4936164/
  6. Oliveira P, Andrade JA, Porto HC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of prostatic abscess. International Braz J Urol 2003;29: 30-34. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ibju/v29n1/v29n1a06.pdf
  7. Lipsky BA, Byren I, Hoey CT. Treatment of bacterial prostatitis. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50:1641-52. https://oup.silverchair-cdn.com/oup/backfile/Content_public/Journal/cid/50/12/10.1086/652861/2/50-12-1641.pdf?Expires=1501276981&Signature=X5SLG2Pq5IpbsjDigES70~Nk6g5onrPwhrFClIAFIvdFiEyCsc1~2aWN9LpR~56DlGqxjmZuIX33JtOn-tURGG0puEwnulZDEDXFjFt6fXucSgtKMDOmGXSKoMvgtPZe86nduJMNDuaifEZXITpDXjSLXAJXVamJ-bbSUMEqSysnCCMxZx~5MaAb6WEikqG5Vi~Xnp58fXABG7BJS~ZFRn2~BTlVEEvmIIDDaY5cJjgUcN7SNOhs0rOS71WzlNtlXSqnXffZEdFSJ~iDcbyRL-wh-9OZqZ2fwojdk8Be89DsKJg8rIh8dlLc5O7v92yL~cZ6iieiP8xTGOU-21tVeA__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAIUCZBIA4LVPAVW3Q
Should male patients with suspected urinary tract infection routinely undergo a prostate exam?

My patient with a recent fall has a low serum 25 (OH) D level. Can vitamin D (VD) deficiency be associated with falls?

Short answer: Yes! Although the essential role of VD in calcium homeostasis and bone health is widely recognized, the extra-skeletal impact of its deficiency is often overlooked, including its effect on muscle function.  In fact, in 30% of patients, VD deficiency may present as proximal muscle weakness before any biochemical signs develop (eg, hypocalcemia, high alkaline phosphatase), likely mediated through VD receptors in muscle tissue 1,2. 

A recent meta-analysis of fall prevention with supplemental vitamin D concluded that at a dose of 700-1000 IU, supplemental vitamin D reduced falls by 19% within 2-3 months of treatment initiation among patients 65 y or older2; this benefit was not affected by type of supplemental VD, gender, age, or level of independence, and may be independent of additional calcium supplementation.  No fall reduction was observed with a daily dose < 700 IU or achieved serum 25 (OH)D levels below 60 nmol. 

References 

  1. Rasheed K, Sethi P, Bixby E. Severe vitamin D deficiency induced myopathy associated with rhabdomyolysis. N Am J Med Sci 2013;5:334-336.
  2. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Orav JE, et al. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ 2009;339:b3692.
My patient with a recent fall has a low serum 25 (OH) D level. Can vitamin D (VD) deficiency be associated with falls?