Chances are our patient has been on antibiotics and is being treated with either inhaled and/or systemic corticosteroids which may all contribute to yeast overgrowth in the respiratory and GI tracts. Fortunately, in the absence of severe immunocompromised state such as neutropenia, Candida sp. in respiratory specimens (including those obtained by bronchoscopy) is only rarely associated with pneumonia (1,2). So no antifungal therapy seems to be indicated in our patient, unless oral candidiasis (e.g. either thrush or the atrophic variety) is also simultaneously present. Time to examine the mouth!
1. El-Ebiary M, Torres A, Fabregas N, et al. Significance of the isolation of Candida species from respiratory samples in critically ill, non-neutropenic patients. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 1997;156:583-590
2. Rello J, Wsandi ME, Diaz E, et al. The role of Candida sp. isolated from bronchoscopic samples in non-neutropenic patients. Chest 1998;114:146-49