Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 3rd most common cause of cancer-related deaths1. Liver transplant removes the HCC tumor and addresses the underlying cirrhosis. Unfortunately, the demand for liver transplants exceeds the supply of available livers, making it necessary to select patients with the best recurrent-free survival following transplantation. .
Mazzaferro2 found that patients who had one lesion <5 cm, no more than 3 lesions each <3 cm, and no extrahepatic involvement or vascular invasion had significantly higher rates of recurrent-free survival following liver transplant than patients with tumors exceeding this criteria (92% vs 59% at 4 years, respectively, P = .002). This criteria, also known as the Milan criteria, has been substantiated by numerous studies3 and widely adopted. Other more inclusive criteria has also been proposed, including the UCSF criteria4 (one tumor <6.5 cm, no more than 3 tumors, all <4.5 cm and cumulative size <8cm) which have good survival rates, but have not been adopted due to limited supply of available livers.
Interestingly, patients with HCC not initially meeting the Milan criteria but who receive treatment to meet the criteria have similar post-transplantation recurrence-free survival rates as those who meet the criteria without downstaging4,5.
- El–Serag HB, Rudolph KL. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2007 Jun 30;132(7):2557-76.
- Mazzaferro V, Regalia E, Doci R, et al. L. Liver transplantation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 693-699.
- Mazzaferro V, Bhoori S, Sposito C, et al. Milan criteria in liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: an evidence‐based analysis of 15 years of experience. Liver Transplantation 2011;17(S2): S44-S57.
- Yao FY, Ferrell L, Bass NM, et al. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of the proposed UCSF criteria with the Milan criteria and the Pittsburgh modified TNM criteria. Liver transplantation. 2002 Sep 1;8(9):765-74.
- Ravaioli M, Grazi GL, Piscaglia F, et al. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: results of down-staging in patients initially outside the Milan selection criteria. Am J Transplant. 2008;8:2547–2557.
- Yao FY, Kerlan RK, Hirose R, et al. Excellent outcome following down-staging of hepatocellular carcinoma prior to liver transplantation: an intention-to-treat analysis. Hepatology. 2008;48:819–827.
Contributed by Marissa Shoji, Medical Student, Harvard Medical School
Several case reports in the literature have stressed the association of bladder dysfunction (BD) with chronic alcohol abuse1,2. Although some cases may be associated with concurrent thiamine deficiency (with its attendant neuropathy), other cases of BD do not appear to be. The mechanism of BD in this setting may be related to the toxic effect of alcohol on peripheral, autonomic and/or central nervous systems2,3.
Binge drinking may also be associated with urinary retention, with spontaneous atraumatic urinary bladder rupture having been reported on several occasions4. Lastly, alcohol withdrawal alone may precipitate urinary retention5.
Unfortunately, many cases of abdominal pain due to urinary retention in the setting of alcohol abuse or withdrawal may be mistakenly attributed to ascites or other causes5. High index of suspicion for BD is essential to minimize its complications.
In our patient, given the low prevalence of benign prostatic hypertrophy in men less than 40 years of age, urinary retention due to alcohol-related BD is more likely.
- Yuan R, Carcciolo VJ, Kulaga M. Chronic abdominal distension secondary to urinary retention in a patient with alcoholism. JAMA 2002;287;318-19.
- Sheremata WA, Sherwin I. Alcoholic myelopathy with spastic urinary bladder. Dis Nerv Syst 1972;33:136-139.
- Mellion M, Gilchrist JM, De La Monte S. Alcohol-related peripheral neuropathy: nutritional, toxic or both? Muscle Nerve 2011;43:309-16.
- Muneer M, Abdelrahman H, El-Menyar A, et al. Spontaneous atraumatic urinary bladder rupture secondary to alcohol intoxication: a case report and review of literature. Am J Case Rep 2015;16:778-81.
- Iga J-I, Taniguchi T, Ohmori T. Acute abdominal distension secondary to urinary retention in a patient after alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Alcoholism 2005;40:86-87.
Polyuria is considered a classic symptom of hypercalcemia and was one of the symptoms described in the first published case of hyperparathyroidism (1). Several potential mechanisms may explain this phenomenon.
The calcium sensing receptors (CaSRs) found in the kidney play a major role in volume status due to their expression in the thick ascending loop (TAL) of Henle and the collecting duct. Interestingly, hypercalcemia activates the CaSR in the medullary portion of TAL, causing inhibition of the same cotransporter (Na-K-2Cl) inhibited by furosemide and other loop diuretics (2-4)! Hypercalcemia also inhibits vasopressin action ( therefore urine concentration) by activating CaSR in the collecting duct (5). Lastly, inhibition of Na+-K+ ATPase in the proximal convoluted tubule may further contribute to natriuresis and subsequent polyuria.
Thus, hypercalcemia may lead to polyuria by interfering with the absorption of sodium as well as inhibiting the action of vasopressin. One can’t help but compare its effect to that of a patient with diabetes insipidus taking a loop diuretic! No wonder these patient may suffer from polyuria!
- Goldfarb S, Agus ZS. Mechanism of the polyuria of hypercalcemia. Am J Nephrol. 1984;4:69-76.
- Quamme GA. Effect of hypercalcemia on renal tubular handling of calcium and magnesium. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1982;60:1275-80.
- Peterson LN. Vitamin D-induced chronic hypercalcemia inhibits thick ascending limb NaCl reabsorption in vivo. Am J Physiol. 1990;259:122-9.
- Riccardi D, Brown EM. Physiology and pathophysiology of the calcium-sensing receptor in the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:485-99.
- Toka HR, Pollak MR, Houillier P. Calcium sensing in the renal tubule. Physiology (Bethesda). 2015;30:317-26.
Contributed by Michael Hughes, Medical Student, Harvard Medical School
The nonadhesive backing of some medicated or transdermal patches (TPs) contain aluminum or other metals that can become heated during an MRI1. FDA is aware of skin burns at the patch site in several patients wearing an aluminized TP during an MRI2.
The following TPs have been reported by the FDA to have aluminized backing: Androderm (testosterone transdermal system); 2. Catapres-TTS (clonidine transdermal system); 3. Nicoderm (nicotine transdermal system); 4. Nicotrol (nicotine transdermal system); 5. Prostep (nicotine transdermal system);6. Habitrol (nicotine transdermal system); 7. Nicotine transdermal system (generic nicotine transdermal system); 8. Transderm Nitro (nitroglycerin transdermal system); 9. Trasnsderm Scop (scopolamine transdermal system).
Other TPs that have metal backing but not necessarily carrying FDA warning include Flector (diclofenac), estradiol, Duragesic (fentanyl), Synera (lidocaine and tetracaine), methyl salicylate and menthol (over the counter), Oxytrol (oxybutynin), Exelon (rivastigmine), Neupro (rotigotine), and Emsam (selegiline)3.
In short, it is advisable that TPs with metal backing (either listed above or others) be removed prior to MRI.
- Kuehn B. FDA warning: remove drug patches before MRI to prevent burns to skin. JAMA. 2009;301:1328
- https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scienceforums/forum06/k-26.htm , accessed April 19, 2017.
- http://www.pharmacytimes.com/contributor/alexander-kantorovich-pharmd-bcps/2016/08/transdermal-patches-that-must-be-removed-before-mri , accessed April 19,2017.
Yes! Besides expanding the circulatory plasma volume by raising the oncotic pressure, albumin appears to have a vasoconstricting effects by binding to endotoxins, nitric oxide (NO), bilirubin and fatty acids1,2.
Splanchnic vasodilatation, a feature of decompensated cirrhosis (eg ascites, bleeding varices, hepatorenal syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy), is accentuated by superimposed infections through cytokine-mediated release of endothelial vasodilators3. By binding to potential vasodilators such as bile acids, endotoxins and NO, albumin may also help restore endothelial function and act as a vasoconstrictor.
In a cool study involving patients with SBP randomized to either albumin or hydroxyethyl starch (HS, a synthetic volume expander), the albumin (not HS) group had a significant increase in mean arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, systolic volume, left ventricular stroke work, and systemic vascular resistance3.
Albumin may also have an immune-modulating activity in patients with cirrhosis or acute liver decompensation by binding to prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2), generated as a result of inflammatory reaction in the liver and bacterial translocation4. PGE-2 is a suppressor of macrophage cytokine secretion and bacterial killing. By binding to PGE-2, albumin can reverse this immunosuppression by reducing the availability of serum PGE-2.
- Baraldi O, Valenini C, Donati G, et al. Hepatorenal syndrome: update on diagnosis and treatment 2015;4:511-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558188
- Angeli P, Volpin R, Piovan D, et al. Acute effects of the oral administration of midodrine, an α-adrenergic agonist, on renal hemodynamics and renal function in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Hepatology 1998;28:937-43. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9755229
- Fernandez J, Monteagudo J, Bargallo X, et al. A randomized unblended pilot study comparing albumin versus hydroxyethyl starch in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology 2005;42:627-634. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16108036
- Gleeson, MW, Dickson RC. Albumin gains immune boosting credibility. Clin Transl 2015;6:e86;doi:10.1038/ctg.2015.11. http://www.nature.com/ctg/journal/v6/n4/full/ctg201511a.html
Cardiac complications are common in anorexia nervosa (AN), with sinus bradycardia occurring in up to 95% of patients1,2. The mechanism of bradycardia in AN has yet to be clearly elucidated.
The predominant hypothesis posits that bradycardia is due to an increased cardiac vagal tone3,4, with a direct relationship observed between vagal tone and percent weight loss4. Additionally, sympathetic response may be altered through down-regulation of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors5. The physiologic response of lowering the resting heart rate through an increase in parasympathetic activity and sympathetic down-regulation leads to energy conservation in the fasting state of AN.
Current guidelines recommend that patients with AN and “severe” sinus bradycardia—defined as heart rate <50 beats/min during the day or <45 beats/min at night—should be admitted to the hospital for cardiac monitoring and gradual weight gain6. Fortunately, bradycardia associated with AN is reversible with weight gain7,8.
- Portilla MG. Bradycardia: an important physical finding in anorexia nervosa. J Ark Med Soc 2011;107:206-208. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21739848
- Katzman DK. Medical complications in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: a review of the literature. Int J Eat Dis 2005; 37:S52-S59. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/eat.20118
- Petretta M, et al. Heart rate variability as a measure of autonomic nervous system function in anorexia nervosa. Clin Card 1997; 20: 219-224. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9068906
- Kollai M., et al. Cardiac vagal hyperactivity in adolescent anorexia nervosa. Eur Heart J 1994;15:1113-1118. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7988604
- Kaye WH, et al. Isoproterenol infusion test in anorexia nervosa: Assessment of pre-and post-beta-noradrenergic receptor activity. Psychopharm Bull 1990.
- Golden NH, et al. Eating disorders in adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2003;33: 496-503. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14642712
- Gottdiener JS, et al. Effects of self-induced starvation on cardiac size and function in anorexia nervosa. Circulation 1978;58: 425-433. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/679432
- Olivares JL, et al. Cardiac findings in adolescents with anorexia nervosa at diagnosis and after weight restoration. Eur J Pediatrics 2005;164:383-386. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15909184
Contributed by Marissa K Shoji, Medical Student, Harvard Medical School
When dealing with pressure sores, there is no definitive way of making a diagnosis of osteomyelitis short of a biopsy of the involved bone1. In fact, only about a third of stage IV pressure ulcers (those extending to the bone) may be associated with osteomyelitis2. In a study of pressure sores related to spinal cord injury or cerebrovascular accident, the clinical judgement of physicians with respect to the presence of osteomyelitis was accurate in only 56% of patients. Only 3 of 21 patients with exposed bone had a diagnosis of osteomyelitis confirmed on biopsy3.
The “Probe to the Bone” bedside procedure has been studied primarily in diabetic foot infections with a recent systematic review reporting pooled sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], .75-.93) and 0.83 (95% CI, .65-.93), respectively4. Its performance in non-diabetic patients or those without a foot infection needs further study.
So in our patient, we should not assume a diagnosis of osteomyelitis; a bone biopsy is necessary for a definitive diagnosis.
- Larson DL, Gilstrap J, Simonelic K, et al. Is there a simple, definitive, and cost-effective way to diagnose osteomyelitis in the pressure ulcer patient? Plast Reconstr Surg 2011; 127:67. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21285771
- Bodavula P, Liang SY, Wu J et al. Pressure ulcer-related pelvic osteomyelitis: a neglected disease? Open Forum Infect Dis 2015. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofv112. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26322317
- Darouiche RO, Landon GC, Klima M et al. Osteomyelitis associated with pressure sores. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:753-58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8147679
- Lam K, van Asten SA, Nguyen T, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of probe to bone to detect osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis 2016;63:944-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27369321