Why is my patient with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypovolemia hypertensive?

Although we may expect patients with DKA to present with hypotension due to hypovolemia, many patients with DKA may actually be hypertensive. This finding is particularly intriguing because hyperinsulinemia, not insulinopenia as found in DKA, has been associated with hypertension. 1,2

Though not proven, potential explanations for hypertension in DKA include elevated serum levels of catecholamines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, renin, angiotension II and aldosterone.3-5 Hyperosmolality may also lead to the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which increases blood pressure via V2 receptors.  Another possibility is that the high insulin levels associated with the treatment of DKA suppress the catecholamine-stimulated production of vasodilative eicosanoids (eg, prostaglandins) by adipose tissue. 1 It’s possible that in any given patient, 1 or more of these mechanisms may be enough to override the potential hypotensive effect of insulin deficiency in DKA.

We should note that reports of frequent hypertension in DKA have primarily involved pediatric patients. A 2011 study found that 82% of pediatric patients with DKA had hypertension during the first 6 hours of admission with no patient having hypotension.3  

On the other extreme, refractory hypotension without obvious cause (eg, sepsis, acute adrenal insufficiency, cardiogenic causes) has also been reported in DKA.5Because insulin inhibits the production of vasodilative prostaglandins (eg, PGI2 and PGE2), severe insulin deficiency in DKA can also contribute to hypotension along with volume depletion. 

Potential genetic polymorphism in the synthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins may at least partially explain the varied blood pressure response and whether a patient with DKA presents with hypertension or hypotension. 5  

The author would like to acknowledge the valuable contribution of Lloyd Axelrod MD, Massachusetts General Hospital, to this post.

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  1. Axelrod L. Insulin, prostaglandins, and the pathogenesis of hypertension. Diabetes 1991;40:1223-1227. https://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/40/10/1223 
  2. Chatzipantelli K, Head C, Megerman J, et al. The relationship between plasma insulin level, prostaglandin productin by adipose tissue and blood pressure in normal rats and rats with diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis. Metabolism 1996;45:691-98. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S002604959690133X 
  3. Deeter KH, Roberts JS, Bradford H, et al. Hypertension despite dehydration during severe pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatr Diabetes 2011;12:295-301. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1399-5448.2010.00695.x 
  4. Ferris JB, O’Hare JA, Kelleher CM, et al. Diabetic control and the renin-angiotensin system, catecholamines and blood pressure. Hypertension 1985 7(Suppl II):II-58-II-63. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/01.HYP.7.6_Pt_2.II58  
  5. Singh D, Cantu M, Marx MHM, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis and fluid refractory hypotension. Clin Pediatrics 2016;55:182-84. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0009922815584549?journalCode=cpja 


Why is my patient with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypovolemia hypertensive?

My patient with sepsis and bacteremia has an extremely high serum Creatine kinase (CK) level. Can his infection be causing rhabdomyolysis?

 Absolutely! Although trauma, toxins, exertion, and medications are often listed as common causes of rhabdomyolysis, infectious etiologies should not be overlooked as they may account for 5% to 30% or more of rhabdomyolysis cases (1,2).


Rhabdomyolysis tends to be associated with a variety of infections, often severe, involving the respiratory tract, as well as urinary tract, heart and meninges, and may be caused by a long list of pathogens (1).  Among bacterial causes, Legionella sp. (“classic” pathogen associated with rhabdomyolysis), Streptococcus sp. (including S. pneumoniae), Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Francisella tularensis have been cited frequently (3).  Some series have reported a preponderance of aerobic gram-negatives such as Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E. coli  (1,2).   Among viral etiologies, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and coxsackievirus are commonly cited (2,3).  Fungal and protozoal infections (eg, malaria) may also be associated with rhabdomyolysis (5).


So how might sepsis cause rhabdomyolysis? Several potential mechanisms have been implicated, including tissue hypoxemia due to sepsis, direct muscle invasion by pathogens (eg, S. aureus, streptococci, Salmonella sp.), toxin generation (eg, Legionella), cytokine-mediated muscle cell toxicity (eg, aerobic gram-negatives) as well as muscle ischemia due to shock (1,5).


Bonus Pearl: Did you know that among patients with HIV infection, infections are the most common cause (39%) of rhabdomyolysis (6)? 


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1. Kumar AA, Bhaskar E, Shantha GPS, et al. Rhabdomyolysis in community acquired bacterial sepsis—A retrospective cohort study. PLoS ONE 2009;e7182. Doi:10.1371/journa.pone.0007182. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19787056.

2. Blanco JR, Zabaza M, Sacedo J, et al. Rhabdomyolysis of infectious and noninfectious causes. South Med J 2002;95:542-44. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12005014

3. Singh U, Scheld WM. Infectious etiologies of rhabdomyolysis:three case reports and review. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:642-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8729203

4. Shih CC, Hii HP, Tsao CM, et al. Therapeutic effects of procainamide on endotoxin-induced rhabdomyolysis in rats. PLOS ONE 2016. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150319. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26918767

5. Khan FY. Rhabdomyolysis: a review of the literature. NJM 2009;67:272-83. http://www.njmonline.nl/getpdf.php?id=842

6. Koubar SH, Estrella MM, Warrier R, et al. Rhabdomyolysis in an HIV cohort: epidemiology, causes and outcomes. BMC Nephrology 2017;18:242. DOI 10.1186/s12882-017-0656-9. https://bmcnephrol.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12882-017-0656-9

My patient with sepsis and bacteremia has an extremely high serum Creatine kinase (CK) level. Can his infection be causing rhabdomyolysis?

Why was the myocardial infarction in my postop patient silent?

Myocardial infarction (MI) in postop patients is in fact usually silent (1,2) but what is less clear is how myocardial ischemia can occur without any symptoms.

Although use of analgesics and narcotics postop may dampen or mask chest pain or other symptoms associated with MI, other factors are also likely to play an important role, such as decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli, autonomic neuropathy (eg, in diabetes mellitus), and higher pain threshold among some patients (3).

Additional factors associated with silent MIs include cerebral cortical dysfunction since frontal cortical activation appears to be necessary to experience cardiac pain. Mental stress is also a frequent trigger for asymptomatic myocardial ischemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death (4).  High levels of beta-endorphin, an endogenous opiate, may also play a role (5).

Perhaps the most intriguing explanation for lack of symptoms is the observation that the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-4 and -10)—which block pain transmission pathways and increase the threshold for nerve activation—seem to be increased in patients with silent myocardial ischemia (6).  Even more relevant to our postop patient is the finding that interleukin-10 production increases during and after major abdominal surgery and correlates with the amount of intraoperative blood loss (7). 

No wonder MIs in postop patients are often silent!

1. Devereaux PJ, Xavier D, Pogue J, et al. Characteristics nd short-term prognosis of perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2011;154:523-8. https://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/746934/characteristics-short-term-prognosis-perioperative-myocardial-infarction-patients-undergoing-noncardiac 
2. Badner NH, Knill RL, Brown JE, et al. Myocardial infarction after noncardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 1998;88:572-78. http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1948483
3. Ahmed AH, Shankar KJ, Eftekhari H, et al. Silent myocardial ischemia:current perspectives and future directions. Exp Clin Cardiol 2007;12:189-96. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2359606/ 
4. Gullette EC, Blumenthal JA, Babyak M, et al. Effects of mental stress on myocardial ischemia during daily life. JAMA 1997;277:1521-6. https://jama.jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/articlepdf/416233/jama_277_19_029.pdf
5. Hikita H, Kurita A, Takase B, et al. Re-examination of the roles of beta-endorphin and cardiac autonomic function in exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 1997;2:319-25. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1542-474X.1997.tb00195.x
6. Mazzone A, Cusa C, Mazzucchelli I, et al. Increased production of inflammatory cytokines in patients with silent myocardial ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1895-901. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11738291
7. Kato M, Honda I, Suzuki H, et al. Interleukin-10 production during and after upper abdominal surgery. J Clin Anesth 1998;10:184-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9603586 

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Why was the myocardial infarction in my postop patient silent?

My hospitalized patient with pneumonia has now suffered an acute myocardial infarction (MI). Can acute infection and MI be related?

Yes! Ample epidemiological studies implicate infection as an important risk factor for MI.1 The increased risk of MI has been observed during the days, weeks, months or even years following an infection.

A 2018 paper reported a several-fold risk of MI during the week after laboratory-confirmed infection caused by a variety of respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus (6-fold), respiratory syncytial virus (4-fold), and other respiratory viruses (3-fold). 2 Among patients hospitalized for pneumococcal pneumonia, 7-8% may suffer an MI.3,4 One study found a 48-fold increase in the risk of MI during the first 15 days after hospitalization for acute bacterial pneumonia.5 Similarly, an increase in the short-term risk of MI has been observed in patients with urinary tract infection and bacteremia.6

The risk of MI appears to be the highest at the onset of infection and correlates with the severity of illness, with the risk being the highest in patients with pneumonia complicated by sepsis, followed by pneumonia and upper respiratory tract infection. Among patients with pneumonia, the risk exceeds the baseline risk for up to 10 years after the event, particularly with more severe infections.1

Potential mechanisms of MI following infections include release of inflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukins 1, 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) causing activation of inflammatory cells in atherosclerotic plaques, in turn resulting in destabilization of the plaques. In addition, the thrombogenic state of acute infections, platelet and endothelial dysfunction may increase the risk of coronary thrombosis at sites of plaque disruption beyond clinical resolution of the acute infection. 1

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  1. Musher DM, Abers MS, Corrales-Medina VF. Acute infection and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2019;380:171-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30625066
  2. Kwong JC, Schwartz KL, Campitelli MA, et al. Acute myocardial infarction after laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. N Engl J Med 2018;378:345-53. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1702090
  3. Musher DM, Alexandraki I, Graviss EA, et al. Bacteremic and nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia: a prospective study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2000;79:210-21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10941350
  4. Musher DM, Rueda Am, Kaka As, Mapara SM. The association between pneumococcal pneumonia and acute cardiac events. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:158-65. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17578773
  5. Corrales-Medina VF, Serpa J, Rueda AM, et al. Acute bacterial pneumonia is associated with the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes. Medicine (Baltimore) 2009;88:154-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19440118
  6. Dalager-Pedersen M, Sogaard M, Schonheyder HC, et al. Risk for myocardial infarction and stroke after community-acquired bacteremia: a 20-year population-based cohort study. Circulation 2014;129:1387-96. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523433


My hospitalized patient with pneumonia has now suffered an acute myocardial infarction (MI). Can acute infection and MI be related?

My patient with cirrhosis now has an upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB) with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). What’s the connection between UGIB and HE?

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) may be precipitated by a variety of factors including infection, hypovolemia, electrolyte imbalance (eg, hyponatremia, hypokalemia), metabolic alkalosis, sedatives, and of course UGIB. 1-3

Ammonia is often considered to play a central role in the the pathogenesis of HE, particularly when associated with UGIB. The ammoniagenic potential of UGIB is primarily attributed to the presence of hemoglobin protein in the intestinal tract. One-half of the ammoniagenesis originates from amino acid metabolism (mainly glutamine) in the mucosa of the small bowel, while the other half is due to the splitting of urea by the resident bacteria in the colon (eg, Proteus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and anerobes).1,2

A large protein load in the GI tract, as occurs in UGIB, may result in hyperammonemia in patients with cirrhosis due to the limited capacity of the liver to convert ammonia to urea through the urea cycle as well as by the shunting of blood around hepatic sinusoids. Recent studies, however, also implicate the kidneys as an important source of ammonia in this setting, further compounding HE.3

It’s important to stress that ammonia is not likely to be the only mediator of HE. Enhanced production of cytokines due to infection or other inflammatory states, neurosteroids, endogenous benzodiazepines, and other bacterial byproducts may also play an important role in precipitating HE.2,4-6  So stay tuned!

Bonus pearl: Did you know that proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inerleukin-6 increase ammonia permeability across central nervous system-derived endothelial cells? 7



  1. Olde Damink SWM, Jalan R, Deutz NEP, et al. The kidney plays a major role in the hyperammonemia seen after simulated or actual GI bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 2003;37:1277-85.
  2. Frederick RT. Current concepts in the pathophysiology and management of hepatic encephalopathy. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;7:222-233.
  3. Tapper EB, Jiang ZG, Patwardhan VR. Refining the ammonia hypothesis: a physiology-driven approach to the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Mayo Clin Proc 2015;90:646-58.
  4. Shawcross DL, Davies NA, Williams R, et al. Systemic inflammatory response exacerbates the neuropsychological effects of induced hyperammonemia in cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2004;40:247-254.
  5. Shawcross DL, Sharifi Y, Canavan JB, et al. Infection and systemic inflammation, not ammonia, are associated with grade ¾ hepatic encephalopathy, but not mortality in controls. J Hepatol 2011;54:640-49.
  6. Shawcross D, Jalan R. The pathophysiologic basis of hepatic encephalopathy: central role for ammonia and inflammation.Cell Mol Life Sci 2005;62:2295-2304.
  7. Duchini A, Govindarajan S, Santucci M, et al. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 on fluid-phase permeability and ammonia diffusion in CNS-derived endothelial cells. J Investig Med 1996;44:474-82.

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My patient with cirrhosis now has an upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB) with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). What’s the connection between UGIB and HE?

Can my patient develop “anemia of chronic disease” acutely while hospitalized?

“Anemia of chronic disease” is better termed anemia of inflammation (AI) which may occur in acute as well as chronic inflammatory states. 1 As such, the view that anemia in the critically ill patients is simply caused by excess phlebotomy is inaccurate. 2 The CRIT study demonstrated that AI in critically ill patients develops even within 30 days, often despite blood transfusions. 3

In addition to the usual causes of AI (eg autoimmune disorders), AI can occur during bacterial, viral or yeast infections and sepsis 4,5.

Recent studies implicate both iron sequestration and impaired erythropoiesis as causes of AI. 1 Inflammation stimulates hepatic production of iron-regulatory peptide, hepcidin, which decreases delivery of iron from macrophages to developing erythrocytes.  Inflammation also causes production of pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, which suppresses erythropoiesis.

Couple of cool studies using injection of heat-killed Brucella abortus in mice as a model of AI, showed dramatic hemoglobin drop by 7 days.6,7. In addition, not only were iron restriction from increase in hepcidin and transient erythropoiesis demonstrated, erythrocyte lifespan was also shortened in these experiments. AI is truly a multifactorial process.



  1. Frankel PG. Anemia of inflammation: A review. Med Clin N Ame 2017;101:285-96. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28189171
  2. Corwin HL, Krantz SB. Anemia of the critically ill: “Acute” anemia of chronic disease. Crit Care Med 2000;28:3098-99. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10966311
  3. Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Pearl RG, et al. The CRIT study: anemia and blood transfusion in the critically ill-current clinical practice in the United states. Crit Care Med 2004;32:39-52. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14707558
  4. Gabriel A, Kozek S, Chiari A, et al. High-dose recombinant human erythropoietin stimulates reticulocyte production in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. J Trauma:Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 1998;44:361-67. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9498512
  5. Roy CN. Anemia of inflammation. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2010;2010:276-80. doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2010.1.276. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21239806
  6. Kim A, Fung E, Parikh SG, et al. A mouse model of anemia of inflammation: complex pathogenesis with partial dependence on hepcidin. Blood 2014;123:1129-36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24357728
  7. Gardenghi S, Renaud TM, Meloni A, et al. Distinct roles for hepcidin and interleukin-6 in the recovery from anemia in mice injected with heat-killed Brucella abortus. Blood 2014;123:1137-45. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24357729

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Can my patient develop “anemia of chronic disease” acutely while hospitalized?

My elderly nursing home patient is admitted with recent poor oral intake, falls and oral temperatures of 99.1°-99.3° F(37.3°-37.4°C). Is she considered febrile at these temperatures?

Yes! Even though we often think of temperatures of 100.4°F (38° C) or greater as fever, older people often fail to mount an appropriate febrile response despite having a serious infection. 1

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guideline on evaluation of fever in older adult residents of long-term care facilities has defined fever in this population as:2

  • Single oral temperature >100° F (>37.8° C) OR
  • Repeated oral temperatures >99° F (>37.2° C) OR
  • Rectal temperatures >99.5° F (>37.5° C) OR
  • Increase in temperature of >2° F (>1.1° C) over the baseline temperature

Even at these lower than traditional thresholds for defining fever, remember that many infected elderly patients may still lack fever. In a study involving bacteremic patients, nearly 40% of those 80 years of age or older did not have fever (defined as maximum temperature over 24 hrs 100° F [37.8°C] or greater).3  

So our patient meets the criteria for fever as suggested by IDSA guidelines and, particularly in light of her recent poor intake and falls, may need evaluation for a systemic source of infection.

Now that’s interesting! Did you know that blunted febrile response of the aged to infections may be related to the inability of cytokines (eg, IL-1) to reach the central nervous system?1


  1. Norman DC. Fever in the elderly. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:148-51. https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/31/1/148/318030
  2. High KP, Bradley SF, Gravenstein S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation of fever and infection in older adult residents of long-term care facilities: 2008 update by the Infectious Disease Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:149-71. http://www.idsociety.org/uploadedFiles/IDSA/Guidelines-Patient_Care/PDF_Library/Fever%20and%20Long%20Term%20Care.pdf
  3. Manian FA. Fever, abnormal white blood cell count, neutrophilia, and elevated serum C-reactive protein in adult hospitalized patients with bacteremia. South Med J 2012;105;474-78. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/22948327
My elderly nursing home patient is admitted with recent poor oral intake, falls and oral temperatures of 99.1°-99.3° F(37.3°-37.4°C). Is she considered febrile at these temperatures?

What is the mechanism of anemia of chronic disease in my patient with rheumatoid arthritis?

Anemia of chronic disease (ACD)—or more aptly “anemia of inflammation”— is the second most common cause of anemia after iron deficiency and is associated with numerous acute or chronic conditions (eg, infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, chronic organ rejection, and chronic kidney disease)1.

The hallmark of ACD is disturbances in iron homeostasis which result in increased uptake and retention of iron within cells of the reticuloendothelial system, with its attendant diversion of iron from the circulation and reduced availability for erythropoiesis1. More specifically, pathogens, cancer cells, or even the body’s own immune system stimulate CD3+ T cells and macrophages to produce a variety of cytokines, (eg, interferon-ɤ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10) which in turn increase iron storage within macrophages through induction of expression of ferritin, transferrin and divalent metal transporter 1.

In addition to increased macrophage storage of iron, ACD is also associated with IL-6-induced synthesis of hepcidin, a peptide secreted by the liver that decreases iron absorption from the duodenum and its release from macrophages2. TNF-α and interferon-ɤ also contribute to ACD by inhibiting the production of erythropoietin by the kidney.  Finally, the life span of RBCs is adversely impacted in AKD due to their reduced deformability and increased adherence to the endothelium in inflammatory states3.

Of interest, it is often postulated that by limiting access to iron through inflammation, the body hinders the growth of pathogens by depriving them of this important mineral2.

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  1. Weiss, G and Goodnough, L. Anemia of chronic disease. N Engl J Med 2005; 352; 1011-23. http://www.med.unc.edu/medclerk/medselect/files/anemia2.pdf
  2. D’Angelo, G. Role of hepcidin in the pathophysiology and diagnosis of anemia. Blood Res 2013; 48(1): 10-15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3624997/pdf/br-48-10.pdf                                                                                                                                  
  3. Straat M, van Bruggen R, de Korte D, et al. Red blood cell clearance in inflammation. Transfus Med Hemother 2012;39:353-60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3678279/pdf/tmh-0039-0353.pdf


Contributed by Amir Hossein Ameri, Medical Student, Harvard Medical School


What is the mechanism of anemia of chronic disease in my patient with rheumatoid arthritis?

My patient with cirrhosis and suspected infection has a normal serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Does cirrhosis affect CRP response to infection?

CRP is primarily synthesized by the liver mainly as a response to IL-6 production in inflammatory states1.  Lower CRP production may then be expected in cirrhotic patients with significant infections and several studies support this view2

In a particularly convincing study involving E. coli-infected patients with bacteremia, the median CRP level in cirrhotic patients was about 40% that of non-cirrhotic patients (62 mg/L vs 146 mg/L)3.  In another study involving bacteremic patients with or without liver dysfunction, median CRP level was about 60% that of  patients with preserved liver function (81 mg/L vs 139 mg/L)4

Some investigators have reported a cut-off CRP value of 9.2 mg/L as a possible screening test for bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis with a sensitivity and specificity of 88% (AUROC 0.93)5.

Collectively, these data suggest that although CRP response may be diminished in patients with advanced liver disease and acute infection, its synthesis is still maintained.

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  1. Pieri G, Agarwal B, Burroughs AK. C-reactive protein and bacterial infection in cirrhosis. Ann Gastroenterol 2014;27:113-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3982625/pdf/AnnGastroenterol-27-113.pdf
  2. Ha YE, Kang C-I, Joo E-J, et al. Usefulness of C-reactive protein for evaluating clinical outcomes in cirrhotic patients with bacteremia. Korean J Intern Med 2011;26:195-200. http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3110852/pdf/kjim-26-195.pdf
  3. Park WB1, Lee KD, Lee CS et al. Production of C-reactive protein in Escherichia coli-infected patients with liver dysfunction due to liver cirrhosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005 Apr;51(4):227-30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15808312
  4. Mackenzie I, Woodhouse J. C-reactive protein concentrations during bacteraemia: a comparison between patients with and without liver dysfunction. Intensive Care Med 2006;32:1344-51. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16799774
  5. Papp M, Vitalis Z, Altorjay I, et al. Acute phase proteins in the diagnosis and prediction of cirrhosis associated bacterial infection. Liver Int 2011;603-11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22145664


My patient with cirrhosis and suspected infection has a normal serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Does cirrhosis affect CRP response to infection?

My patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is requiring IV albumin. Does IV albumin do anything other than expand the plasma volume?

Yes! Besides expanding the circulatory plasma volume by raising the oncotic pressure, albumin appears to have a vasoconstricting effects by binding to endotoxins, nitric oxide (NO), bilirubin and fatty acids1,2.

Splanchnic vasodilatation, a feature of decompensated cirrhosis (eg ascites, bleeding varices, hepatorenal syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy), is accentuated by superimposed infections through cytokine-mediated release of endothelial vasodilators3.  By binding to potential vasodilators such as bile acids, endotoxins and NO, albumin may also help restore endothelial function and act as a vasoconstrictor.  

In a cool study involving patients with SBP randomized to either albumin or hydroxyethyl starch (HS, a synthetic volume expander), the albumin (not HS) group had a significant increase in mean arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure,  systolic volume, left ventricular stroke work, and systemic vascular resistance3.

Albumin may also have an immune-modulating activity in patients with cirrhosis or acute liver decompensation by binding to prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2), generated as a result of inflammatory reaction in the liver and bacterial translocation4.  PGE-2 is a suppressor of macrophage cytokine secretion and bacterial killing.  By binding to PGE-2, albumin can reverse this immunosuppression by reducing the availability of serum PGE-2.


  1. Baraldi O, Valenini C, Donati G, et al. Hepatorenal syndrome: update on diagnosis and treatment 2015;4:511-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558188
  2. Angeli P, Volpin R, Piovan D, et al. Acute effects of the oral administration of midodrine, an α-adrenergic agonist, on renal hemodynamics and renal function in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Hepatology 1998;28:937-43. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9755229
  3. Fernandez J, Monteagudo J, Bargallo X, et al. A randomized unblended pilot study comparing albumin versus hydroxyethyl starch in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology 2005;42:627-634. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16108036
  4. Gleeson, MW, Dickson RC. Albumin gains immune boosting credibility. Clin Transl 2015;6:e86;doi:10.1038/ctg.2015.11. http://www.nature.com/ctg/journal/v6/n4/full/ctg201511a.html
My patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is requiring IV albumin. Does IV albumin do anything other than expand the plasma volume?