Yes! Even though we often think of temperatures of 100.4°F (38° C) or greater as fever, older people often fail to mount an appropriate febrile response despite having a serious infection. 1
Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guideline on evaluation of fever in older adult residents of long-term care facilities has defined fever in this population as:2
- Single oral temperature >100° F (>37.8° C) OR
- Repeated oral temperatures >99° F (>37.2° C) OR
- Rectal temperatures >99.5° F (>37.5° C) OR
- Increase in temperature of >2° F (>1.1° C) over the baseline temperature
Even at these lower than traditional thresholds for defining fever, remember that many infected elderly patients may still lack fever. In a study involving bacteremic patients, nearly 40% of those 80 years of age or older did not have fever (defined as maximum temperature over 24 hrs 100° F [37.8°C] or greater).3
So our patient meets the criteria for fever as suggested by IDSA guidelines and, particularly in light of her recent poor intake and falls, may need evaluation for a systemic source of infection.
Now that’s interesting! Did you know that blunted febrile response of the aged to infections may be related to the inability of cytokines (eg, IL-1) to reach the central nervous system?1
- Norman DC. Fever in the elderly. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:148-51. https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/31/1/148/318030
- High KP, Bradley SF, Gravenstein S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation of fever and infection in older adult residents of long-term care facilities: 2008 update by the Infectious Disease Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:149-71. http://www.idsociety.org/uploadedFiles/IDSA/Guidelines-Patient_Care/PDF_Library/Fever%20and%20Long%20Term%20Care.pdf
- Manian FA. Fever, abnormal white blood cell count, neutrophilia, and elevated serum C-reactive protein in adult hospitalized patients with bacteremia. South Med J 2012;105;474-78. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/22948327
Short answer: Yes! Although the essential role of VD in calcium homeostasis and bone health is widely recognized, the extra-skeletal impact of its deficiency is often overlooked, including its effect on muscle function. In fact, in 30% of patients, VD deficiency may present as proximal muscle weakness before any biochemical signs develop (eg, hypocalcemia, high alkaline phosphatase), likely mediated through VD receptors in muscle tissue 1,2.
A recent meta-analysis of fall prevention with supplemental vitamin D concluded that at a dose of 700-1000 IU, supplemental vitamin D reduced falls by 19% within 2-3 months of treatment initiation among patients 65 y or older2; this benefit was not affected by type of supplemental VD, gender, age, or level of independence, and may be independent of additional calcium supplementation. No fall reduction was observed with a daily dose < 700 IU or achieved serum 25 (OH)D levels below 60 nmol.
- Rasheed K, Sethi P, Bixby E. Severe vitamin D deficiency induced myopathy associated with rhabdomyolysis. N Am J Med Sci 2013;5:334-336.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784929/
- Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Orav JE, et al. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ 2009;339:b3692. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19797342/
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OH is a sustained reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥ 20 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 10 mm Hg within 3 min of standing or head-up tilt to at least 60° on a tilt table (1); symptoms are not part of the criteria. In patients with supine hypertension, a reduction in SBP of 30 mm Hg has been suggested (1).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends BP measurements when patient is supine for 5 min, and after standing for 1 and 3 min (2). In some patients symptomatic OH occurs beyond 3 minutes of standing (1). Preference for mercury column sphygmomanometer due to its reliability and simplicity, with arm at the level of the heart has been stressed (3).
A 2017 report involving over 11,000 middle-aged participants (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study) has challenged the notion of waiting 3 minutes before OH is measured (4). This prospective study found a significant association between participant-reported history of dizziness on standing and OH but only at 1st measurement (mean of 28.0 seconds after standing), not at subsequent ones over a 2 minute period. It was concluded that measuring OH during the first minute “not only makes a lot of sense” but it’s more appropriate “because it’s more predictive of future falls”.
Keep in mind that OH is more common and more severe during mornings and after meals, and is exacerbated by large meals, meals high in carbohydrate, and alcohol intake (1).
For a relate pearl go to : https://pearls4peers.com/2018/02/08/is-checking-for-orthostatic-hypotension-less-than-1-minute-after-standing-clinically-useful
- Freeman R, Wieling W, Axelrod FB, et al. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 2011;161: 46–48. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21431947
- http://www.cdc.gov/steadi/pdf/measuring_orthostatic_blood_pressure-a.pdf , accessed Dec 13, 2015.
- Naschitz J, Rosner I. Orthostatic hypotension: framework of the syndrome . Postgrad Med J 2007; 83:568-574. http://pmj.bmj.com/content/83/983/568
- Juraschek SP, Daya N, Rawlings AM, et al. Comparison of early versus late orthostatic hypotension assessment times in middle-age adults. JAMA Intern Med 2017;1177:1316-1323. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5661881/
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