Is there a connection between my patient’s blood type and risk of thromboembolic events?

The weight of the evidence to date seem to suggest that non-blood group O may be associated with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF)-related peripheral cardioembolic complications, myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke. 1-4

A 2015 retrospective Mayo Clinic study involving patients with NVAF adjusted for CHADS2 score found significantly lower rate of peripheral embolization in those with blood group O compared to those with other blood groups combined (3% vs 2%, O.R. 0.66, 95% CI, 0.5-0.8); rates of cerebral thromboembolic events were not significantly different between the 2 groups, however. 1

A 2008 systematic review and meta-analysis of studies spanning over 45 years reported a significant association between non-O blood group and MI, peripheral vascular disease, cerebral ischemia of arterial origin, and venous thromboembolism.2 Interestingly, the association was not significant for angina pectoris or for MI when only prospective studies were included.  Some studies have reported that the association between von Willebrand factor (VWF) and the risk of cardiovascular mortality may be independent of blood group. 5,6

Although the apparent lower risk of thromboembolic conditions in O blood group patients may be due to lower levels of VWF and factor VIII in this population 1,4, other pathways likely  play a role.7  

As for why the rate of peripheral (but not cerebral) thromboembolic events in NVAF is affected by blood group, one explanation is that because of their size, larger clots (facilitated by lower VWF levels) may bypass the carotid and vertebral orifices in favor of their continuation downstream to the “peripheral bed”.1

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References

  1. Blustin JM, McBane RD, Mazur M, et al. The association between thromboembolic complications and blood group in patients with atrial fibrillation. Mayo Clin Proc 2015;90;216-23. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S002561961401043X
  2. Wu O, Bayoumi N, Vickers MA, et al. ABO (H) groups and vascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemostasis 2008;6:62-9. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2007.02818.x
  3. Medalie JH, Levene C, Papier C, et al. Blood groups, myocardial infarction, and angina pectoris among 10,000 adult males. N Engl J Med 1971;285:1348-53. https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM197112092852404
  4. Franchini M, Capra F, Targher G, et al. Relationship between ABO blood group and von Willebrand factor levels: from biology to clinical implications. Thrombosis Journal 2007, 5:14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2042969/
  5. Meade TW, Cooper JA, Stirling Y, et al. Factor VIII, ABO blood group and the incidence of ischaemic heart disease. Br J Haematol 1994;88:601-7. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2141.1994.tb05079.x
  6. Jager A, van Hinsbergh VW, Kostense PJ, et al. von Willebrand factor, C-reactive protein, and 5-year mortality in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects: the Hoorn Study. Arterioscl Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:3071-78. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/12709043_von_Willebrand_Factor_C-Reactive_Protein_and_5-Year_Mortality_in_Diabetic_and_Nondiabetic_Subjects_The_Hoorn_Study
  7. Sode BF, Allin KH, Dahl M, et al. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type. CMAJ 2013.DOI:10.1503/cmaj.121636. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23382263
Is there a connection between my patient’s blood type and risk of thromboembolic events?

My patient with inferior myocardial infarction with Q-waves 2 years ago now has no evidence of Q waves on his EKG. Can Q-waves from myocardial infarction really regress over time?

Short answer: Yes! Q-waves may regress following transmural myocardial infarction (ATMI) and in fact this phenomenon may not be as unusual as once thought, occurring in 7-15% of patients (1,2).

 
A prospective study involving patients with ATMI evaluated by coronary angiography and followed for an average of 65 months found an 11% rate of loss of Q-waves over an average of 14 months after ATMI. Factors associated with loss of Q-waves included lower peak creatine kinase values, lower left ventricular end-diastolic pressures, higher ejection fractions, fewer ventricular aneurysms and lower rate of congestive heart failure, all leading to the authors’ conclusion that Q-wave loss may be related to a smaller infarct size (1).

 
Similar findings were reported from patients enrolled in the Aspirin Myocardial Infarction Study with a loss of a previously documented diagnostic Q-wave confirmed in 14.2% of participants over an average of 38 months. Mortality among patients who lost Q-waves was not significantly different than among those with persistent Q-waves in a single infarct location (2).

 
These observations suggest that Q-waves in the setting of ATMI may not necessarily be pathognomonic of myocardial necrosis and, at least in some instances, may be due to tissue ischemia, edema and inflammation causing reversible myocardial and electrical stunning (3). Of interest, reversible Q-waves have also been reported in acute myocarditis (4).

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that the EKG waves P and Q were likely named by Einthoven, the inventor of EKG, after the designation of the same letters by Descartes, the father of analytical geometry, in describing refraction points? (5). 

 

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References
1. Coll S, Betriu A, De Flores T, et al. Significance of Q-wave regression after transmural acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1988;61:739-42.
2. Wasserman AG, Bren GB, Ross AM, et al. Prognostic implications of diagnostic Q waves after myocardial infarction. Circulation 1982;65:1451-55.
3. Barold SS, Falkoff MD, Ong LS, et al. Significance of transient electrocardiographic Q waves in coronary artery disease. Cardiol Clin 1987;5:367-80.
4. Dalzell JR, Jackson CE, Gardner RS. Masquerade: Fulminant viral myocarditis mimicking a Q-wave anterolateral myocardial infarction. Am J Med 2009. Doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.01.015.

5. Hurst, JW.  Naming of the waves in the ECG, with a brief account of their genesis. Circulation 1998;98:1937-42. 

 

My patient with inferior myocardial infarction with Q-waves 2 years ago now has no evidence of Q waves on his EKG. Can Q-waves from myocardial infarction really regress over time?

Why is the bicuspid aortic valve of my middle age patient with endocarditis so heavily calcified?

Congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a significant risk factor for valvular calcification, occurring about 20 years earlier than people with normal tricuspid aortic valve as they age. In fact, despite its prevalence of only 1-2% in the population, BAV may account for 50% of aortic valve stenosis (1).

 
Two potential mechanisms could account for the propensity of patients with BAV to develop valve calcification. First, genetic mutations that  account for some of the cases of BAV disease, may also be associated with valvular calcification (1). NOTCH1 mutation is one such candidate causing early developmental defect in the aortic valve, while later causing de-repression of calcium deposition (2). A mutation of the gene for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) involved in preventing calcification in animal and tissue experiments may be another factor (3,4).

 
Besides genetic explanations, alteration in the mechanical force environments of the BAV itself likely plays an important part in the premature degeneration and calcification of the valve (1). Stenotic and skewed forward flow along with increased jet velocity may increase shear forces on the valve. The resultant inflammatory response and apoptosis could lead to a diseased valve, not unlike what may be seen with tricuspid aortic valve under similar circumstances (5). Perhaps more fascinating is the observation that fluid shear itself may influence bone morphogenetic protein expression, further contributing to valvular calcification (6).

 

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that the risk of infective endocarditis may be much higher (>20-fold) among patients with BAV compared to those with triscuspid aortic valve (7)?

 

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References
1. Yap CH, Saikrishanan N, Tamilselvan G, et al. The congenital bicuspid aortic valve can experience high-frequency unsteady shear stresses on its leaflet surface. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2012; 303:H721-H731. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00829.2011. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468455/
2. Nigam V, Srivastava D. Notch 1 represses osteogenic pathways in aortic valve cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2009;47:828-34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19695258
3. Rajamannan NM, Subramanian M, Stock SR, et al. Atorvastatin inhibits calcification and enhances nitric oxide synthase production in the hypercholesterolaemic aortic valve disease. Heart 2005;91:806-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15894785
4. Kennedy JA, Hua X, Mishra K, et al. Inhibition of calcifying nodule formation in cultured porcine aortic valve cells by nitric oxide donors. Eur J Pharmacol 2009;602:28-35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056377
5. Wallby L, Janerot-Sjöberg B, Steffensen T, Broqvist M. T lymphocyte infiltration in non-rheumatic aortic stenosis: a comparative descriptive study between tricuspid and bicuspid aortic valves. Heart 88: 348–351, 2002. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12231589
6. Sorescu GP, Song H, Tressel SL, et al. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress induces monocyte adhesion by stimulating reactive oxygen species production from a nox1-based NADPH oxidase. Circ Res 2004;84:773-79. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15388638
7. Kiyota Y, Corte AD, Vieira VM, et al. Risk and outcomes of aortic valve endocarditis among patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves. Open Heart J 2017;4:e000545. Doi:10.1136/opnhrt-2016-000545. https://openheart.bmj.com/content/openhrt/4/1/openhrt-2016-000545.full.pdf

Why is the bicuspid aortic valve of my middle age patient with endocarditis so heavily calcified?

My patient with brain tumor suffered a myocardial infarction (MI) just before having a diagnostic brain surgery. Could the tumor have placed him at higher risk of a coronary event?

Yes! Arterial thromboembolism—just as venous thromboembolism— is more common in patients with cancer.

In a large 2017 epidemiologic study involving patients 66 years of age or older, the 6-month cumulative incidence of MI was nearly 3-fold higher in newly-diagnosed cancer patients compared to controls, with the excess risk resolving by 1 year. 1 These findings were similar to a previous report involving patients with newly-diagnosed cancer, although in that study the overall coronary heart disease risk remained slightly elevated even after 10 years. 2

In addition, the incidence of coronary events and unstable ischemic heart disease during the 2 year period prior to the diagnosis of cancer is 2-fold higher among cancer patients suggesting that ischemic heart disease may be precipitated by occult cancer. 3

The association of cancer and thromboembolic coronary events may be explained through several mechanisms, including development of a prothrombotic or hypercoagulable state through acute phase reactants, abnormal fibrinolytic activity and increased activation of platelets which are also significantly involved in the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). 4 Coronary artery embolism from cancer-related marantic endocarditis may also occur.5

More specific to our case, primary brain tumors may be associated with a hypercoagulable state through expression of potent procoagulants such as tissue factor and tissue factor containing microparticles, with a subset producing carbon monoxide, another procoagulant. 6

So our patient’s MI prior to his surgery for brain tumor diagnosis might have been more than a pure coincidence!

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that cancer-related prothrombotic state, also known as  “Trousseau’s syndrome” was first described in 1865 by Armand Trousseau, a French physician who diagnosed the same in himself and died of gastric cancer with thrombotic complications just 2 years later? 7,8

References

  1. Navi BB, Reinder AS, Kamel H, et al. Risk of arterial thromboembolism in patients with cancer. JACC 2017;70:926-38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28818202
  2. Zoller B, Ji Jianguang, Sundquist J, et al. Risk of coronary heart disease in patients with cancer: A nationwide follow-up study from Sweden. Eur J Cancer 2012;48:121-128. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22023886
  3. Naschitz JE, Yeshurun D, Abrahamson J, et al. Ischemic heart disease precipitated by occult cancer. Cancer 1992;69:2712-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1571902
  4. Lee EC, Cameron SJ. Cancer and thrombotic risk: the platelet paradigm. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine 2017;4:1-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29164134
  5. Lee V, Gilbert JD, Byard RW. Marantic endocarditis-A not so benign entity. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 2012;19:312-15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22847046
  6. Nielsen VG, Lemole GM, Matika RW, et al. Brain tumors enhance plasmatic coagulation: the role of hemeoxygenase-1. Anesth Analg 2014;118919-24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24413553
  7. Thalin C, Blomgren B, Mobarrez F, et al. Trousseau’s syndrome, a previously unrecognized condition in acute ischemic stroke associated with myocardial injury. Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports.2014. DOI:10.1177/2324709614539283. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26425612
  8. Samuels MA, King MA, Balis U. CPC, Case 31-2002. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1187-94. https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMcpc020117?articleTools=true

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My patient with brain tumor suffered a myocardial infarction (MI) just before having a diagnostic brain surgery. Could the tumor have placed him at higher risk of a coronary event?

My middle-aged patient with a history of mediastinal irradiation for Hodgkin’s lymphoma in his 20s now has moderate aortic regurgitation. Could his valvular disease be related to the radiation he received over 20 years ago?

Absolutely! Mediastinal irradiation is associated with several cardiac complications, including coronary artery disease, pericarditis, systolic or diastolic dysfunction and valvular disease. Valvular disease may occur in 2-37% of patients after mediastinal irradiation, is dose-dependent, and generally does not manifest until 10-20 years after the radiation exposure.1 Since mediastinal irradiation is common in young adults diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma, these complications may be seen in early middle-age or later.

Valvular retraction is usually the first radiation-induced valvular change, and most commonly leads to mitral and aortic valve regurgitation.2 This retraction tends to occur within 10 years of the radiation therapy, followed by fibrosis and calcification of the valves after 20 years.

Although the pathophysiology of radiation-induced valvular disease is not entirely understood, activation of fibrogenic growth factors (eg, tissue growth factor β1 and myofibroblasts) which promote the synthesis of collagen has been postulated.1 Additionally, irradiation of aortic interstitial cells has been shown to cause transformation to an osteogenic phenotype that produces bone morphogenic protein 2, osteopontin and alkaline phosphatase, all important factors in bone formation and possibly valvular calcification.3

Since radiation-induced heart disease is the most common cause of non-malignant morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone mediastinal irradiation, some have recommended screening of asymptomatic patients for valvular disease every 5 years by echocardiography beginning 10 years after radiation therapy. 2  If an abnormality is found, the screening frequency should increase to every 2-3  years,  if the valvular abnormality is mild, or annually if the abnormality is moderate. For severe valvular abnormalities, the patients should be considered for valve replacement.

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References

    1. Gujral DM, Lloyd G, Bhattacharyya S. Radiation-induced valvular heart disease. Heart 2016;102:269–276. https://heart.bmj.com/content/heartjnl/102/4/269.full.pdf
    2. Cuomo JR, Sharma GK, Conger PD, Weintraub NL. Novel concepts in radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. World J Cardiol. 2016; 8 (9):504-519. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5039353/
    3. Nadlonek NA, Weyant MJ, Yu JA, et al. Radiation induces osteogenesis in human aortic valve interstitial cells. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;144:1466–70. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.08.041 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3665422/

Contributed by Rachel Wallwork, MD, Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA

 

My middle-aged patient with a history of mediastinal irradiation for Hodgkin’s lymphoma in his 20s now has moderate aortic regurgitation. Could his valvular disease be related to the radiation he received over 20 years ago?

Why was the myocardial infarction in my postop patient silent?

Myocardial infarction (MI) in postop patients is in fact usually silent (1,2) but what is less clear is how myocardial ischemia can occur without any symptoms.

Although use of analgesics and narcotics postop may dampen or mask chest pain or other symptoms associated with MI, other factors are also likely to play an important role, such as decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli, autonomic neuropathy (eg, in diabetes mellitus), and higher pain threshold among some patients (3).

Additional factors associated with silent MIs include cerebral cortical dysfunction since frontal cortical activation appears to be necessary to experience cardiac pain. Mental stress is also a frequent trigger for asymptomatic myocardial ischemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death (4).  High levels of beta-endorphin, an endogenous opiate, may also play a role (5).

 
Perhaps the most intriguing explanation for lack of symptoms is the observation that the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-4 and -10)—which block pain transmission pathways and increase the threshold for nerve activation—seem to be increased in patients with silent myocardial ischemia (6).  Even more relevant to our postop patient is the finding that interleukin-10 production increases during and after major abdominal surgery and correlates with the amount of intraoperative blood loss (7). 

No wonder MIs in postop patients are often silent!

References
1. Devereaux PJ, Xavier D, Pogue J, et al. Characteristics nd short-term prognosis of perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2011;154:523-8. https://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/746934/characteristics-short-term-prognosis-perioperative-myocardial-infarction-patients-undergoing-noncardiac 
2. Badner NH, Knill RL, Brown JE, et al. Myocardial infarction after noncardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 1998;88:572-78. http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1948483
3. Ahmed AH, Shankar KJ, Eftekhari H, et al. Silent myocardial ischemia:current perspectives and future directions. Exp Clin Cardiol 2007;12:189-96. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2359606/ 
4. Gullette EC, Blumenthal JA, Babyak M, et al. Effects of mental stress on myocardial ischemia during daily life. JAMA 1997;277:1521-6. https://jama.jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/articlepdf/416233/jama_277_19_029.pdf
5. Hikita H, Kurita A, Takase B, et al. Re-examination of the roles of beta-endorphin and cardiac autonomic function in exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 1997;2:319-25. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1542-474X.1997.tb00195.x
6. Mazzone A, Cusa C, Mazzucchelli I, et al. Increased production of inflammatory cytokines in patients with silent myocardial ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1895-901. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11738291
7. Kato M, Honda I, Suzuki H, et al. Interleukin-10 production during and after upper abdominal surgery. J Clin Anesth 1998;10:184-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9603586 

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Why was the myocardial infarction in my postop patient silent?

My hospitalized patient with pneumonia has now suffered an acute myocardial infarction (MI). Can acute infection and MI be related?

Yes! Ample epidemiological studies implicate infection as an important risk factor for MI.1 The increased risk of MI has been observed during the days, weeks, months or even years following an infection.

A 2018 paper reported a several-fold risk of MI during the week after laboratory-confirmed infection caused by a variety of respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus (6-fold), respiratory syncytial virus (4-fold), and other respiratory viruses (3-fold). 2 Among patients hospitalized for pneumococcal pneumonia, 7-8% may suffer an MI.3,4 One study found a 48-fold increase in the risk of MI during the first 15 days after hospitalization for acute bacterial pneumonia.5 Similarly, an increase in the short-term risk of MI has been observed in patients with urinary tract infection and bacteremia.6

The risk of MI appears to be the highest at the onset of infection and correlates with the severity of illness, with the risk being the highest in patients with pneumonia complicated by sepsis, followed by pneumonia and upper respiratory tract infection. Among patients with pneumonia, the risk exceeds the baseline risk for up to 10 years after the event, particularly with more severe infections.1

Potential mechanisms of MI following infections include release of inflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukins 1, 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) causing activation of inflammatory cells in atherosclerotic plaques, in turn resulting in destabilization of the plaques. In addition, the thrombogenic state of acute infections, platelet and endothelial dysfunction may increase the risk of coronary thrombosis at sites of plaque disruption beyond clinical resolution of the acute infection. 1

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References

  1. Musher DM, Abers MS, Corrales-Medina VF. Acute infection and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2019;380:171-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30625066
  2. Kwong JC, Schwartz KL, Campitelli MA, et al. Acute myocardial infarction after laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. N Engl J Med 2018;378:345-53. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1702090
  3. Musher DM, Alexandraki I, Graviss EA, et al. Bacteremic and nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia: a prospective study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2000;79:210-21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10941350
  4. Musher DM, Rueda Am, Kaka As, Mapara SM. The association between pneumococcal pneumonia and acute cardiac events. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:158-65. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17578773
  5. Corrales-Medina VF, Serpa J, Rueda AM, et al. Acute bacterial pneumonia is associated with the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes. Medicine (Baltimore) 2009;88:154-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19440118
  6. Dalager-Pedersen M, Sogaard M, Schonheyder HC, et al. Risk for myocardial infarction and stroke after community-acquired bacteremia: a 20-year population-based cohort study. Circulation 2014;129:1387-96. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523433

 

My hospitalized patient with pneumonia has now suffered an acute myocardial infarction (MI). Can acute infection and MI be related?

How can I distinguish cardiac asthma from typical bronchial asthma?

Certain clinical features of cardiac asthma, defined as congestive heart failure (CHF) associated with wheezing, may be useful in distinguishing it from bronchial asthma, particularly in older patients with COPD (1-3).

• Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea associated with wheezing
• Presence of rales or crackles, ascites or other signs of CHF
• Poor response to bronchodilators and corticosteroids
• Formal pulmonary function test with bronchoprovocation demonstrating minimal methacholine response.

 
Cardiac asthma is not uncommon. In a prospective study of patients 65 yrs of age or older (mean age 82 yrs) presenting with dyspnea due to CHF, cardiac asthma was diagnosed in 35% of subjects. Even in non-elderly patients, cardiac asthma has been reported in 10-15% of patients with CHF (2).

 
The mechanism(s) underlying cardiac asthma is likely multifactorial. Pulmonary edema and pulmonary vascular congestion have traditionally been considered as key factors either through edema in the interstitial fluid of bronchi squeezing the bronchiolar lumen or by externally compressing the entire airway structure and the bronchiole wall. Reflex bronchoconstriction involving the vagus nerve, bronchial hyperreactivity, systemic inflammation, and airway remodeling may also play a role (1,3). 

 
Treatment of choice for cardiac asthma typically includes diuretics, nitrates and morphine, not bronchodilators or corticosteroids (1,3). 

 
Bonus Pearl: Did you know that the term “cardiac asthma” was first coined by the Scottish physician, James Hope, way back in 1832 to distinguish it from bronchial asthma!

 

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References
1. Litzinger MHJ, Aluen JKN, Cereceres R, et al. Cardiac asthma: not your typical asthma. US Pharm. 2013;38:HS-12-HS-18. https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/cardiac-asthma-not-your-typical-asthma
2. Jorge S, Becquemin MH, Delerme S, et al. Cardiac asthma in elderly patients: incidence, clinical presentation and outcome. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2007;7:16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17498318
3. Tanabe T, Rozycki HJ, Kanoh S, et al. Cardiac asthma: new insights into an old disease. Expert Rev Respir Med 2012;6(6), 00-00. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23234454

 

How can I distinguish cardiac asthma from typical bronchial asthma?

Should I routinely screen my patients with heart failure for iron deficiency?

Even in the absence of anemia, screening for iron deficiency (ID) has been recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) by some European and Australia-New Zealand cardiology societies. 1

In contrast, the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America guidelines do not mention routine screening for ID in such patients but instead state (under “Anemia”) that in patients with NYHA class II and III HF and ID (ferritin < 100 ng/mL or 100 to 300 ng/mL plus transferrin saturation <20%), IV iron replacement “might be reasonable” to improve functional status and quality of life (IIb-weak recommendation).2

As these guidelines are primarily based on data derived from patients with HFrEF, whether patients with HF with preserved (eg, >45%) ejection fraction (HFpEF) should undergo routine screening for ID is even less clear due to conflicting data based on limited small studies 3,4

What is known is that up to 50% or more of patients with HF with or without anemia may have ID. 5 Although most studies involving ID and HF have involved patients with HFrEF, similarly high prevalence of ID in HFpEF has been reported. 6,7

A 2016 meta-analysis involving patients with HFrEF and ID found that IV iron therapy alleviates HF symptoms and improves outcomes, exercise capacity and quality of life irrespective of concomitant anemia; all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were not significantly impacted, however.8  

Fortunately, larger trials in the setting of acute and chronic systolic HF are underway (Affirm-AHF, 9 IRONMAN 10).  Stay tuned!

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that iron deficiency directly affects human cardiomyocyte function by impairing mitochondrial respiration  and reducing its contractility and relaxation?11

References

  1. Silverberg DS, Wexler D, Schwartz D. Is correction of iron deficiency a new addition to the treatment of the heart failure? Int J Mol Sci 2015;16:14056-74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4490538/
  2. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure. Circulation 2017;136:e137-e161. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000509
  3. Kasner M, Aleksandrov AS, Westermann D, et al. Functional iron deficiency and diastolic function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. International J of Cardiol 2013;168:12:4652-57. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23968714
  4. Enjuanes C, Klip IT, Bruguera J, et al. Iron deficiency and health-related quality of life in chronic heart failure: results from a multicenter European study. Int J Cardiol 2014;174:268-275. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24768464
  5. Drodz M, Jankowska EA, Banasiak W, et al. Iron therapy in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency: review of iron preparations for practitioners. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2017;17:183-201. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28039585
  6. Bekfani T, Pellicori P, Morris D, et al. Iron deficiency in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and its association with reduced exercise capacity, muscle strength and quality of life. Clin Res Cardiol 2018, July 26. Doi: 10. 1007/s00392-018-1344-x. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30051186
  7. Nunez J, Dominguez E, Ramon JM, et al. Iron deficiency and functional capacity in patients with advanced heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. International J Cardiol 2016;207:365-67. https://www.internationaljournalofcardiology.com/article/S0167-5273(16)30185-1/abstract
  8. Jankowska EA, Tkaczynszyn M, Suchocki T, et al. Effects of intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with systolic heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Heart Failure 2016;18:786-95. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26821594
  9. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02937454
  10. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02642562
  11. Hoes MF, Beverborg NG, Kijlstra JD, et al. Iron deficiency impairs contractility of human cardiomyoctyes through decreased mitochondrial function. Eur J Heart Failure 2018;20:910-19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29484788  

 

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Should I routinely screen my patients with heart failure for iron deficiency?

Should my patient with compensated heart failure be placed on a sodium-restricted diet?

Although sodium restriction is routinely recommended for patients with heart failure (HF), the data is often conflicting with a number of studies even suggesting that it may be harmful in some patients.

Two randomized trials (by the same group) involving patients with compensated HF recently discharged from the hospital reported that “less restricted” sodium diet (2.8 gm/d) along with fluid restriction (1 L/day) and high dose furosemide (at least 125-250 mg furosemide twice daily) was associated with less rates of readmissions and improved levels of brain natriuretic peptide, aldosterone and plasma renin activity compared to patients on more restricted sodium diet (1.8 gm/d). 1,2

Analysis of data from the multihospital HF Adherence and Retention Trial enrolling New York Heart Association functional class II/III HF patients found that sodium restriction (<2.5 gm/d) was associated with significantly higher risk of death or HF hospitalization but only in patients not on an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). 3

In normal subjects who are not sodium deprived, excess sodium intake has been shown to cause expansion of intravascular volume without increasing total body water. 4 Thus, sodium restriction combined with diuretics may reduce intravascular volume and renal perfusion, further stimulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and fluid retention. 5

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines downgraded the recommendation for sodium restriction to Class IIa (reasonable) with Level of Evidence:C? 6

References

  1. Paterna S, Gaspare P, Fasullo S, et al. Normal-sodium diet compared with low-sodium diet in compensated congestive heart failure: is sodium an old enemy or a new friend? Clin Sci 2008;114:221-230. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17688420
  2. Paterna S, Parrinello G, Cannizzaro S, et al. Medium term effects of different dosage of diuretic, sodium, and fluid administration on neurohormonal and clinical outcome in patients with recently compensated heart failure. Am J Cardiol 2009;103:93-102. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19101237
  3. Doukky R, Avery E, Mangla A, et al.Impact of dietary sodium restriction on heart failure outcomes. J Am Coll Cariol HF 2016;4:24-35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4705447/
  4. Heer M, Baisch F, Kropp J et al. High dietary sodium chloride consumption may not induce body fluid retention in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2000;278:F585-F595. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10751219
  5. Rothberg MB, Sivalingam SK. The new heart failure diet: less salt restriction, more micronutrients. J Gen Intern Med 25;1136-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2955483/
  6. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2013 CCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62:e147-239. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23741058

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Should my patient with compensated heart failure be placed on a sodium-restricted diet?