My patient with a recent fall has a low serum 25 (OH) D level. Can vitamin D (VD) deficiency be associated with falls?

Short answer: Yes! Although the essential role of VD in calcium homeostasis and bone health is widely recognized, the extra-skeletal impact of its deficiency is often overlooked, including its effect on muscle function.  In fact, in 30% of patients, VD deficiency may present as proximal muscle weakness before any biochemical signs develop (eg, hypocalcemia, high alkaline phosphatase), likely mediated through VD receptors in muscle tissue 1,2. 

A recent meta-analysis of fall prevention with supplemental vitamin D concluded that at a dose of 700-1000 IU, supplemental vitamin D reduced falls by 19% within 2-3 months of treatment initiation among patients 65 y or older2; this benefit was not affected by type of supplemental VD, gender, age, or level of independence, and may be independent of additional calcium supplementation.  No fall reduction was observed with a daily dose < 700 IU or achieved serum 25 (OH)D levels below 60 nmol. 

References 

  1. Rasheed K, Sethi P, Bixby E. Severe vitamin D deficiency induced myopathy associated with rhabdomyolysis. N Am J Med Sci 2013;5:334-336.
  2. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Orav JE, et al. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ 2009;339:b3692.
My patient with a recent fall has a low serum 25 (OH) D level. Can vitamin D (VD) deficiency be associated with falls?

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