Should Aerococcus urinae growth from the urine of my elderly patient be considered a pathogen?

Although for many years Aerococcus urinae was considered a urinary contaminant, increasingly it is recognized as an emerging pathogen capable of causing not only urinary tract infection (UTI) but also secondary bacteremia and endocarditis, among others.1   

The proportion of patients with aerococcal bacteriuria with symptoms suggestive of UTI ranges from 55-98%.1 So A. urinae can no longer be assumed to be a contaminant, particularly in the presence of symptoms suggestive of UTI.

A. urinae UTI often affects the elderly (median age 79 y) and those with pre-existing urinary tract pathologies, such as prostatic hyperplasia, urethral stricture, renal calculi, and prior urinary tract surgery.2,3 Many patients also have underlying comorbidities such as diabetes, heart disease, dementia, and chronic renal failure.3

One clue to the presence of A. urinae in the urine is its particularly pungent odor reminiscent of that of patients with trimethylaminuria (fish odor syndrome).4

Once you decide you should treat A. urinae, keep in mind that it is NOT predictably susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, or fosfomycin!  Instead, consider penicillin, ampicillin, cephalosporin, or nitrofurantoin to which most strains are susceptible.5,6.

 

References

  1. Rasmussen M. Aerococcus: an increasingly acknowledged human pathogen. Clin Microbiol Infect 2016;22:22-27. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454061
  2. Tathireddy H, Settypalli S, Farrell JJ. A rare case of aerococcus urinae infective endocarditis. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspectives 2017; 7:126-129. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473194/
  3. Higgins A, Garg T. Aerococcus urinae: An emerging cause of urinary tract infection in older adults with multimordidity and urologic cancer. Urology Case Reports 2017;24-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28435789
  4. Lenherr N, Berndt A, Ritz N, et al. Aerococcus urinae: a possible reason for malodorus urine in otherwise healthy children. Eur J Pediatr. 2014;173:1115-7 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24913181
  5. Christensen JJ, Nielsen XC. Aerococcus urinae. Antimicrobe @ http://www.antimicrobe.orgb75.asp , accessed June 14, 2018.
  6. Dimitriadi D, Charitidou C, Pittaras T, et al. A case of urinary tract infection caused by Aerococcus urinae. J Bacteriol Mycol 2016; 2: 00041. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a1cf/048d8444ce054ca9a332f7c2b4a218325ff6.pdf

 

Should Aerococcus urinae growth from the urine of my elderly patient be considered a pathogen?

Is cefpodoxime an appropriate oral antibiotic substitute for ceftriaxone when treating patients with respiratory tract infections caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP)?

Short answer: No!

Although cefpodoxime is also a 3rd generation cephalosporin, its invitro activity against PRSP is not comparable to that of ceftriaxone.  In a study of 21,605 strains of S. pneumoniae collected internationally, whereas 89.1% of PRSP isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, only 35% were susceptible to cefpodoxime (1).  Among isolates resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, the susceptibility to ceftriaxone was 86.9% compared to that of 22.7% for cefpodoxime.

This information is important since 32%, and 17.6% of all S. pneumoniae isolates tested in this study  were either penicillin-resistant or penicillin- and erythromycin-resistant, respectively.  

So, when it comes to the coverage of PRSP, there is no oral cephalosporin “equivalent” to ceftriaxone and that includes cefpodoxime.  In fact, the package insert of cefpodoxime states that cefpodoxime is active against S. pneumoniae “excluding penicillin-resistant strains” (2).

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References

  1. Pottumarthy S. Fritsche TR, Jones RN. Comparative activity of oral and parenteral cephalosporins tested against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumonia: report from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2003). Diag Microbiol Infect Dis 2005;51:147-150. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0732889304002081    
  2. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2007/050674s014,050675s017lbl.pdf; accessed June 20, 2016.
Is cefpodoxime an appropriate oral antibiotic substitute for ceftriaxone when treating patients with respiratory tract infections caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP)?