Since their relatively recent introduction, a major concern over NOAC use has been the lack of available reversal agents akin to vitamin K or fresh frozen plasma used to reverse anticoagulation effect of warfarin.
Fortunately, there are currently 2 FDA-approved NOAC reversal agents (idarucizumab and andexanet alfpha) and 1 NOAC on breakthrough or fast-track status at the FDA (1,2):
- Idarucizumab, a humanized mouse antibody fragment, or Fab, targeted specifically for reversal of dabigatran. FDA approved
- Andexanet alfa, a class-specific antidote for reversal of direct factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban), as well as an indirect factor Xa inhibitor, enoxaparin. FDA approved
- Ciraparantag (PER977), a synthetic water-soluble compound that reverses direct thrombin (dabigatran), direct factor Xa (apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban), and indirect factor Xa inhibitors (enoxaparin). Currently under investigation.
1. Ansell JE. Universal, class-specific, and drug-specific reversal agents for the new oral anticoagulants. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2016;41:248-52. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26449414
2. Connolly SJ, Milling TJ, Eikelboom JW, etal. Andexanet alfa for acute major bleeding associated with factor Xa inhibitors. N Eng J Med 2016;375:1131-41. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1607887
Contributed in part by William L. Hwang, MD, Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA.