Can Salmonella enterocolitis predispose to inflammatory bowel disease?

Yes, enteric pathogens such as Salmonella can predispose patients to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through several potential mechanisms: 1

  • Causing permanent changes in the intestinal microbiota
  • Altering the epithelial barrier in the gut
  • Altering the interaction between the body’s immune system and the intestines

More specifically, Salmonella utilizes oxidized endogenous sulfur compounds released during acute intestinal inflammation to outgrow the fermentative microbiota of the colon.2  In addition, the neutrophil response to Salmonella infection can alter the constituent microbiome.3 Salmonella also modifies the tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium as it invades, thus activating the immune system (particularly toll-like-receptors), and creating a pro-inflammatory state with structural loss of the intestinal mucosa. 4 Lastly, Salmonella promotes cytokine release and neutrophil migration through pathogen recognition receptors, leaving the intestine in a pro-inflammatory state even following resolution of the infection. 1

Keep in mind that initial Salmonella infection may also mimic IBD, as it causes diffuse lesions in the colon similar to ulcerative colitis, and may cause ileitis in some patients. Stool cultures and biopsies of the colonic mucosa should help differentiate IBD from Salmonella infection. 5

 

References

  1. Schultz BM, Paduro CA, Salazar GA, et al. A potential role of Salmonella infection in the onset of inflammatory bowel diseases. Front Immunol 2017;8:191. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5329042/pdf/fimmu-08-00191.pdf
  2. Winter SE, Baumler AJ. A breathtaking feat: to compete with the gut microbiota, Salmonella drives its host to provide a respiratory electron acceptor. Gut Microbes 2011;2:58-60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3225798/pdf/gmic0201_0058.pdf
  3. Gill N, Ferreira RB, Antunes LC, et al. Neutrophil elastase alters the murine gut microbiota resulting in enhanced Salmonella colonization. PLoS ONE 2012;7:e49646. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0049646
  4. Bueno SM, Riquelme S, Riedel CA, et al. Mechanisms used by virulent Salmonella to impair dendritic cell function and evade adaptive immunity. Immunology 2012;137:28-36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22703384
  5. De Hertogh G, Geboes K. Crohn’s disease and infections: a complex relationship. MedGenMed 2004;6:14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1435589

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contributed by Yasmin Islam MD, Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Can Salmonella enterocolitis predispose to inflammatory bowel disease?

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