Although umbilical hernia in patients with cirrhosis and ascites is common and often “expected” (a rate of 20% during the course of their disease), it can be associated with significant risk of complications such as incarceration, ascites drainage, peritonitis, and spontaneous rupture or evisceration from necrosis of overlying skin.1,2
A 2007 retrospective study involving patients with cirrhosis and umbilical hernia reported a complication rate of 77% and related mortality of 15% among those managed conservatively (mean period of observation ~ 5 years); MELD score could not predict failure of conservative management (median 22 in complicated vs 24 in uncomplicated).3
Because the risk of death with hernia repair in urgent settings is 7x higher than for elective hernia repair in cirrhotic patients, there has been increasing interest in elective repair in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis.3 Interestingly, the reported surgical complication rates among patients with well-compensated cirrhosis appear similar to those in noncirrhotic patients.3 If the patient is expected to undergo liver transplantation in the near future, elective hernia repair can be postponed and managed concomitantly.
Bonus pearl: Did you know that spontaneous umbilical hernia rupture is also known as “Flood syndrome” (should be easy to remember!), first described by Frank B Flood, a surgical resident back in 1961? 4
- Marsman HA, Heisterkamp J, Halm JA, et al. Management in patients with liver cirrhosis and an umbilical hernia. Surgery 2007;142:372-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17723889
- Coelho, JCU, Claus CMP, Campos ACL, et al. Umbilical hernia in patients with liver cirrhosis: a surgical challenge. World J Gastrointest Surg 2016;8:476-82. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4942747/
- Martens P, Laleman W. Umbilical hernia in a patient with cirrhosis. Cleveland Clin J Med 2015;82: 404-5. https://www.mdedge.com/ccjm/article/100682/hepatology/umbilical-hernia-patient-cirrhosis
- Nguyen ET, Tudtud-Hans LA. Flood syndrome: spontaneous umbilical hernia rupture leaking ascitic fluid-a case report. Perm J 2017;21:16-152. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5499604/
If you liked this pearl, subscribe to P4P and have future pearls delivered right into your mailbox!
Carnett’s sign (described by a surgeon, J.B. Carnett, in 1926) is a physical exam finding that helps differentiate abdominal wall or psychogenic pain from intra-abdominal sources of pain.
The test is considered positive when, upon locating the tender abdominal spot, the patient’s pain worsens on tensing of the abdominal wall muscles by lifting the head and shoulders from the bed or by raising both legs with straight knees. Conversely, if the pain decreases with this maneuver, an intra-abdominal source is more likely1,2. Sensitivity of ~80%, specificity of ~90%, positive likelihood ratio of 2.6 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.2 have been reported in various studies. 3,4,5
A positive Carnett’s sign should broaden the differential of abdominal pain to include: hernias, irritation of intercostal nerve roots, rectus sheath hematomas, myofascial pain, anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment or ACNES (also see another P4P pearl 6) and psychogenic pain. In the appropriate clinical setting, local corticosteroids or anesthetic injections, or the application of hot or cold packs may be therapeutic. 2,7
If you liked this post, sign up and get future pearls right into your mailbox!
- Carnett JB. Intercostal neuralgia as a cause of abdominal pain and tenderness. J Surg Gynecol Obstet 1926; 42:625-632.
- Bundrick JB, Litin SC. Clinical pearls in general internal medicine. Mayo Clin Proceedings 2011;86: 70–74. https://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/clinical-pearls-in-general-internal-medicine-2.
- Takada T, Ikusaka M, Ohira Y, et al. Diagnostic usefulness of Carnett’s test in psychogenic abdominal pain. Intern Med 2011;50:213-17. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/internalmedicine/50/3/50_3_213/_article
- Kamboj Ak, Hoverten P, Oxentenko AS. Chronic abdominal wall pain: a common yet overlooked etiology of chronic abdominal pain. Mayo Clin Proc 2019;94:139-44. https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(18)30852-8/pdf
- Sweetser S. Abdominal wall pain: a common clinical problem. Mayo Clin Proc 2019;94:347-335.https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(18)30671-2/fulltext
- Suleiman S , Johnston DE. The abdominal wall: an overlooked source of pain. Am Fam Physician 2001; 64: 431-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11515832
Contributed in part by Brad Lander MD, Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA.