“I go after Streptococcus pneumoniae and many other bacteria causing community-acquired pneumonia with vengeance but lately I have had a hard time keeping up with many gram-negatives, including some E. coli. Who am I?”

Additional hint: “The latest FDA warning against the use of my class of drugs has to do with increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta in certain patients, including the elderly and those with hypertension, aortic aneurysm or peripheral vascular disease.” 

Editor’s note: This post is part of the P4P “Talking Therapeutics” series designed to make learning about antibiotics fun. Individual antibiotics give a short description of themselves and you are asked to guess their names. Antimicrobial spectrum, common uses and potential adverse effects follow. Enjoy!

And the answer is…… HERE

Selected antimicrobial spectrum

                Gram-positives: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus                         (some resistance even in MSSA), Enterococcus spp (urine;some resistance)

                Gram-negatives: Enterics (eg, E. coli, Klebsiella spp), Pseudomonas spp,                                 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, H. influenzae, some ESBLs.

                 AVOID: MRSA, anaerobes

Common clinical uses: community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), urinary tract infections (UTIs), legionnaire’s disease, abdominal infection (plus anaerobic coverage)

WATCH OUT! QT prolongation, C. difficile, central nervous system toxicity, seizures, myasthenia gravis, peripheral neuropathy, tendinopathy, drug interactions (eg. warfarin), and most recently aortic aneurysm diagnosis/dissection!

Remember the key features of levofloxacin before you prescribe it!

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Selected references

  1. FDA. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients.  https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-warns-about-increased-risk-ruptures-or-tears-aorta-blood-vessel-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics. Accessed Nov 26, 2020,.
  2. Marangon FB, Miller D, Muallem MS, et al. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistance among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates from keratitis and conjunctivitis. Am J Ophthal 2004;137:453-58. https://www.ajo.com/article/S0002-9394(03)01287-X/pdf
  3. Yasufuku T, Shigemura K, Shirakawa T, et al. Mechanisms of and risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical Enterococcus faecalis from patients with urinary tract infections. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:3912-16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3209098/
  4.  Rawla P, Helou MLE, Vellipuram AR. Fluoroquinolones and the risk of aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2019;17:3-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6865049/

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

“I go after Streptococcus pneumoniae and many other bacteria causing community-acquired pneumonia with vengeance but lately I have had a hard time keeping up with many gram-negatives, including some E. coli. Who am I?”

How long should I expect Legionella urine antigen test to remain positive after diagnosis of legionnaire’s disease in my patient with pneumonia?

The urine antigen test for detection of Legionnaire’s disease (LD) can remain positive for weeks or months after initial infection. So a positive test in a patient with pneumonia may not just be suggestive of an acute infection but also the diagnosis of LD during recent weeks or months (1,2).

In a study of Legionella urine antigen detection as a function of days after onset of symptoms, 11 of 11 (100%) patients tested remained positive after day 14 (1). In the same study, 10 of 23 (43%) patients excreted antigen for 42 days or longer following initiation of therapy, with some patients remaining positive for more than 200 days!

In another study involving 61 patients with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia, 25% excreted Legionella antigen for 60 or more days (2). Longer duration of antigen excretion was significantly associated with immunosuppressed patients in whom the time to resolution of fever was > 72 h.

The long duration of excretion of Legionella antigen in urine following LD is not surprising. Pneumococcal pneumonia has also been associated with prolonged antigen excretion, some for as long as 6 months after diagnosis of pneumonia (3). It is thought that some microbial polysaccharides may be degraded very slowly or not at all by mammalian tissues which could explain their prolonged appearance in the urine long after active infection has resolved (1).

Bonus pearl: Did you know that the sensitivity of Legionella urinary antigen for LD varies from 94% for travel-associated infections to 76%-87% for community-acquired infection, and to as low as ~45% for nosocomially-acquired infections (4)?

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References

  1. Kohler RB, Winn WC, Wheat J. Onset and duration of urinary antigen excretion in Legionnaires disease. J Clin Microbiol 1984;20:605-7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6490846/
  2. Sopena N, Sabria M, Pedro-Bolet ML, et al. Factors related to persistence of Legionella urinary antigen excretion in patients with legionnaire’s disease. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2002;21:845-48. https://europepmc.org/article/med/12525918
  3. Andreo F, Prat C, Ruiz-Manzano J, et al. Persistence of Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen excretion after pneumococcal pneumonia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009;28:197-201. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18830727/
  4. Helbig JH, Uldum SA, Bernander S, et al. Clinical utility of urinary antigen detection for diagnosis of community-acquired, travel-associated, and nosocomial Legionnaire’s disease. Clin Microbiol 2003;41:838-40. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12574296/

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

How long should I expect Legionella urine antigen test to remain positive after diagnosis of legionnaire’s disease in my patient with pneumonia?