Can hypothyroidism be associated with hypertension?

Short answer: Yes! Just as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism is also associated with hypertension (1-5). Compared to normal subjects, patients with hypothyroidism have a 3-fold increased prevalence of hypertension, usually diastolic (2). In fact, hypothyroidism has been identified as a cause of hypertension in 3% of patients with high blood pressure and is the most common cause of secondary hypertension after renovascular hypertension (1-3).

High systemic vascular resistance and increased arterial stiffness are among the important mechanisms explaining hypothyroid-induced hypertension (1). High systemic vascular resistance is thought to be due to the absence of the vasodilator effects of T3 on vascular smooth muscle and decreased response to beta-adrenergic stimulation, which in turn leads to increased alpha-adrenergic responses. Increased arterial stiffness may also contribute due to the myxedema involvement of the arterial wall. Other potential factors include free water retention due to an inappropriate secretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and obesity in hypothyroid patients (1,4).

Similar to its prevalence in hypothyroidism, hypertension is about 3-fold higher in patients with overt hyperthyroidism compared to normal subjects (1). However, in contrast to hypothyroid patients, the hypertension in hyperthyroidism is primarily “cardiogenic”, where the increased blood pressure levels are mainly maintained by the increased cardiac output due to high stroke volume and heart rate (1).

Thus, both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can be associated with hypertension!

Bonus pearl: Did you know that hypertension due to hypothyroidism is typically associated with a low-renin state, is particularly sensitive to salt intake, and may not respond as well to angiotensin -converting enzyme inhibitors (1)?

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1. Mazza A, Beltramello G, Armigliato M, et al. Arterial hypertension and thyroid disorders: what is important to know in clinical practice? Annales d’Endocrinologie 2011;72:296-303.
2. Dernellis J, Panaretou M. Effects of thyroid replacement therapy on arterial blood pressure in patients with hypertension and hypothyroidism 2002; Am Heart J 2002;143:718-24.
3. Anderson GH, Blakeman N, Steeten DHP. The effect of age on prevalence of secondary forms of hypertension in 4429 consecutively referred patients. J Hypertension 1994;12:609-15.
4. Saito I, ITO K, Saruta T. Hypothyroidism as a cause of hypertension. Hypertension 1983;5:112-15.
5. Chaker L, Bianco AC, Jonklaas J, et al. Hypothyroidism. Lancet 2017;390:1550-62.

Can hypothyroidism be associated with hypertension?

How does hyperventilation cause coronary vasospasm?

Hyperventilation may be an important cause of coronary vasospasm and chest pain. 1 The mechanism likely revolves around the competition between the effects of hydrogen and calcium ions on the smooth muscle of coronary arteries. 2

Respiratory alkalosis induced by hyperventilation causes a reduction of hydrogen ions which, under physiologic conditions, compete with calcium ion, an important trigger for arterial smooth muscle contraction. Lower hydrogen ion concentrations tips the balance in favor of calcium’s effects on transmembrane channels and myofibrillar ATP-ase of the smooth muscle and causes vasoconstriction.2

In fact, hyperventilation has been used to reproduce coronary spasm during angiography in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease and angina symptoms.The efficacy of hyperventilation in inducing an alkalotic state during this test is verified by obtaining an arterial blood gas after 6-minutes of hyperventilation.  A basic Tris-buffer to enhance alkalotic provocation was also used in earlier studies. 2

In addition to producing spasm and angina, hyperventilation-induced alkalosis has been associated with frank transmural myocardial infarction and ischemia-related arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia. 2,4,5

So in the appropriate context, hyperventilation may not be so benign!


  1. Freeman LJ, Nixon PGF. Chest pain and the hyperventilation syndrome-some aetiologic considerations. Postgrad Med J 1985;61:957-61.
  2. Yasue HM, Nagao S, Omote A, et al. Coronary arterial spasm and Prinzmetal’s variant form of angina induced by hyperventilation and Tris-buffer infusion. Circulation 1978;58:56-62.
  3. Zaya M, Mehta PK, Merz NB, etal. Provocative testing for coronary reactivity and spasm. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 63:103-9.
  4. Magarian GJ, Jones S, Calverley T. Hyperventilation testing for coronary vasospasm: induction of spontaneous ventricular tachycardia in association with transmural ischemia without obstructive coronary disease. 1990; 120:1447-49.
  5. Chelmowski MK, Keelan MH. Hyperventilation and myocardial infarction. Chest 1988;93:1095-96.

Contributed by Ramya Chitra Mosarla, Medical Student, Harvard Medical School

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How does hyperventilation cause coronary vasospasm?