Is there a connection between nocturia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Absolutely! Although seemingly unrelated medical conditions, nocturia is commonly associated with OSA. [1,2]

A retrospective study [1] (n = 138) reported pathologic nocturia (≥2 urination events per night) in 47.8% of patients with OSA-hypopnea-syndrome. In this study, nocturia was linked to increasing age, 02 desaturation and severity of OSA. In another study (n=30), OSA (defined as apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥5) was diagnosed in 66% of patients with nocturia with increasing nocturia associated with higher AHI.[2]

Recall that repetitive apnea episodes in OSA expose cardiovascular system to cycles of exaggerated negative intrathoracic pressure. [3] This causes myocardial stretching which is likely the reason OSA has been linked to elevated nocturnal atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels. [4] In turn, ANP as an aldosterone inhibitor, increases salt and water excretion causing nocturia. Of interest, use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been shown to normalize ANP levels [5] which may explain CPAP’s favorable impact on the frequency of nocturia based on a meta-analysis. [6]

Although the role of screening for OSA in nocturia remains unclear, OSA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nocturia, especially in men and women younger than 50 years of age. [7,8]

Bonus pearl: Did you know that OSA has been associated with recreational MDMA (“ecstasy”) use, with severity of OSA correlating with lifetime MDMA exposure? [9]

Contributed by Fahad Tahir, MD, Mercy Hospital-St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

 

References:

  1. Hajduk IA, Strollo PJ Jr, Jasani RR, Atwood CW Jr, Houck PR, Sanders MH. Prevalence and predictors of nocturia in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome–a retrospective study. Sleep. 2003 Feb 1;26(1):61-4. PMID: 12627734. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12627734/
  2. Umlauf MG, Chasens ER, Greevy RA, Arnold J, Burgio KL, Pillion DJ. Obstructive sleep apnea, nocturia and polyuria in older adults. Sleep. 2004 Feb 1;27(1):139-44. doi: 10.1093/sleep/27.1.139. PMID: 14998251.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14998251/
  3. Bradley TD, Floras JS. Obstructive sleep apnoea and its cardiovascular consequences. Lancet. 2009 Jan 3;373(9657):82-93. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61622-0. Epub 2008 Dec 26. PMID: 19101028. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(08)61622-0/fulltext
  4. Svatikova A, Shamsuzzaman AS, Wolk R, Phillips BG, Olson LJ, Somers VK. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide in obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Cardiol. 2004 Aug 15;94(4):529-32. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.05.010. PMID: 15325948. https://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149(04)00730-1/fulltext/
  5. Krieger J, Laks L, Wilcox I, Grunstein RR, Costas LJ, McDougall JG, Sullivan CE. Atrial natriuretic peptide release during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea before and during treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Clin Sci (Lond). 1989 Oct;77(4):407-11. doi: 10.1042/cs0770407. PMID: 2530023. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2530023/
  6. Wang T, Huang W, Zong H, Zhang Y. The Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy on Nocturia in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int Neurourol J. 2015 Sep;19(3):178-84. doi: 10.5213/inj.2015.19.3.178. Epub 2015 Sep 22. PMID: 26620900; PMCID: PMC4582090. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26620900/
  7. Lowenstein L, Kenton K, Brubaker L, Pillar G, Undevia N, Mueller ER, FitzGerald MP. The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea, nocturia, and daytime overactive bladder syndrome in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 May;198(5):598.e1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2008.02.024. PMID: 18455544. https://www.ajog.org/article/S0002-9378(08)00168-3/fulltext
  8. Moriyama Y, Miwa K, Tanaka H, Fujihiro S, Nishino Y, Deguchi T. Nocturia in men less than 50 years of age may be associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Urology. 2008 Jun;71(6):1096-8. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2008.02.038. Epub 2008 Apr 8. PMID: 18400277.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18400277/
  9. McCann UD, Sgambati FP, Schwartz AR, Ricaurte GA. Sleep apnea in young abstinent recreational MDMA (“ecstasy”) consumers. Neurology. 2009 Dec 8;73(23):2011-7. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181c51a62. Epub 2009 Dec 2. PMID: 19955499; PMCID: PMC2790228. https://n.neurology.org/content/73/23/2011.long

 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, their affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

 

 

 

Is there a connection between nocturia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Is compression therapy for leg edema harmful in patients with congestive heart failure?

The evidence to date, albeit based on small non-randomized studies, suggests that compression therapy of lower extremities in stable patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) is not associated with clinical deterioration, while more studies are needed to evaluate its safety in advanced classes of CHF (NYHA III and IV). The theoretical concern is that by mobilizing fluid from lower extremities, compressive therapy could lead to worsening pulmonary edema in patients with less stable CHF. 1,2

A study of subjects with NYHA II CHF wearing compression stockings found a significant increase in human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) in patients with known heart disease but the rise was only transient and not accompanied by hemodynamic changes or clinical deterioration.3 Similar findings have been reported by studies involving patients with NYHA III and IV CHF involving compressive therapy which demonstrated no clinically significant deleterious effects. 4-5

Nevertheless, isolated reports of acute pulmonary edema following compressive therapy in the literature, 6,7 and the theoretical concern raised above have often led to recommendations against the use of CT in patients with advanced CHF. 1,2 We clearly need more studies to evaluate the risks vs benefits of CT in patients with CHF.

Bonus Pearl: Did you know that compressing the legs with pressures of 25 mm Hg and 50 mm Hg can reduce the blood volume in legs by 33% and 38%, respectively? 2

Liked this post? Download the app on your smart phone and sign up below to catch future pearls right into your inbox, all for free!

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

References

  1. Urbanek T, Jusko M, Kuczmik WB. Compression therapy for leg oedema in patients with heart failure. ESC Heart Failure 2020;7:2012-20. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ehf2.12848
  2. Hirsch T. Oedema drainage and cardiac insufficiency—When is there a contraindication for compression and manual lymphatic drainage? Phlebologie 2018;47:115-19. https://www.thieme-connect.de/products/ejournals/pdf/10.12687/phleb2420-3-2018.pdf?articleLanguage=en
  3. Galm O, Jansen-Genzel W, von Helden J, et al. Plasma human atrial natriuretic peptide under compression therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency with or without cardiac insufficiency. Vasa 1996;25:48-53. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8851264/
  4. Wilputte F, Renard M, Venner J, et al. Hemodynamic response to multilayered bandages dressed on a lower limb of patients with heart failure. Eur J Lymphology 2005;15:1-4. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Olivier_Leduc/publication/287602727_Hemodynamic_response_to_multilayered_bandages_dressed_on_a_lower_limb_of_patients_with_heart_failure/links/5704dff008ae44d70ee12eb5/Hemodynamic-response-to-multilayered-bandages-dressed-on-a-lower-limb-of-patients-with-heart-failure.pdf?origin=publication_detail
  5. Leduc O, Crasset V, Leleu C, et al. Impact of manual lymphatic drainage on hemodynamic parameters in patients with heart failure and lower limb edema. Lymphology 2011;44:13-20. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21667818/
  6. Vaassen MM. Manual lymph drainage in a patient with congestive heart failure: a case study. Ostomy Wound Management 2015;61:38-45. https://www.o-wm.com/article/manual-lymph-drainage-patient-congestive-heart-failure-case-study
  7. McCardell CS, Berge KH, Ijaz M, et al. Acute pulmonary edema associated with placement of waist-high, custom fit compression stockings. Mayo Clin Proc 1999;74:478-480. https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(11)64822-2/fulltext

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis or its affiliate healthcare centers. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

Is compression therapy for leg edema harmful in patients with congestive heart failure?