The most noticeable change is the elimination of the concept of health-care associated pneumonia (HCAP) altogether1. This action is in part related to the fact that many patients with HCAP were not at high risk for multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) , and that individual patient risk factors, not mere exposure to healthcare facilities, were better determinant of the need for broader spectrum antimicrobials.
Other noteworthy points in the guidelines include:
- Although hospital-associated pneumonia (HAP) is still defined as a pneumonia not incubating at the time of admission and occurring 48 hrs or more following hospitalization, it now only refers to non-VAP cases; VAP cases are considered a separate category.
- Emphasis is placed on each hospital generating antibiograms to guide providers with respect to the optimal choice of antibiotics.
- Despite lack of supportive evidence, the guidelines recommend obtaining respiratory samples for culture in patients with HAP.
- Prior intravenous antibiotic use within 90 days is cited as the only consistent risk factor for MDROs, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas sp.
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- Kalil AC, Metersky ML, Klompas M, et al. Management of adults with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: 2016 clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. Clin Infect Dis 2016 ;63:e61-e111. Advance Access published July 14, 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27418577