How would you answer these 7 most popular clinical questions of 2022 on Pearls4Peers??

Peers,

www.Pearls4Peers.com just turned 7 with 2022 poised to become its best year ever in viewership  (>30,000 views so far)!  To mark this “momentous” occasion, I thought I would share with you, loyal viewers and subscribers, the 7 most viewed posts  of 2022 at its midway point.  Imagine rounding on the wards with your team and someone asks you one or more of these questions.  Take a crack at answering them and compare your answers with those of P4P (Ctrl+Click)! Have fun!

  1. What is the significance of teardrop cells(dacrocytes) on the peripheral smear of my patient with newly-discovered pancytopenia?
  2.  My elderly patient developed a flare-up of her gout few days after receiving covid-19 vaccine. Is there a connection between immunization and gout flare? 
  3. What is the clinical relevance of the “SPICE” organisms? 
  4. What does an “indeterminate” result in QuantiFERON Gold in-Tube Test for latent tuberculosis really mean? 
  5. What is the difference between “moderate” and “high complexity” medical decision making under the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) rule? 
  6. The urine culture of my female patient with urgency is growing Lactobacillus. Should I treat it?
  7. Why is serum AST levels generally higher than ALT in alcohol-induced liver injury?

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Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Mercy Hospital-St. Louis, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, their affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

How would you answer these 7 most popular clinical questions of 2022 on Pearls4Peers??

Is ascitic fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) useful in diagnosing tuberculous (TB) peritonitis?

ADA is an enzyme found in a variety tissues and blood cells including erythrocytes and lymphocytes. Its activity in body fluids is primarily related to the number, maturation and level of stimulation of lymphocytes (1).  Although ADA has been used as a diagnostic test for tuberculous meningitis, pericarditis and pleural effusions, caution should be exercised when interpreting its activity in ascitic fluid, particularly in low endemic countries where cirrhosis may not be uncommon.  In a study of patients with ascites in the U.S., the overall sensitivity of the ADA for TB peritonitis was 59 % with a specificity of 95% (1).  Among cirrhotic patients, however, the sensitivity of ADA was only 30%!   False-positive results are occasionally observed in bacterial peritonitis and malignancy-associated ascites (1).  Parenthetically, the sensitivity of serum ascites-albumin gradient (SAAG) <1.1 for TB peritonitis is also low (50%) in the setting of chronic liver disease (2).

  1. Hillebrand DJ, Runyon BA, Yasmineh WG, Rynders GP. Ascitic fluid adenosine deaminase insensitivity in detecting tuberculous peritonitis in the United States. Hepatology 1996;24:1408-1412.
  2. Shakil AO, Korula J, Kanel GC, Murray NG, Reynolds TB. Diagnostic features of tuberculous peritonitis in the absence and presence of chronic liver disease: a case-control study. Am J Med 1996;100:179-185.

 

Is ascitic fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) useful in diagnosing tuberculous (TB) peritonitis?

My 70 year old male patient with recent hip fracture has developed fevers with sterile pyuria. How do I interpret the sterile pyuria in this patient?

Although historically sterile pyuria (SP) has been associated with genitourinary (GU) tuberculosis, there are many more common causes to consider in the hospitalized patient (1-3).    

Recent antibiotic exposure (within past 2 weeks) in the setting of UTI is one of the most frequent causes.  Prostatitis is also an often overlooked cause.  Sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis should also be considered in at risk patients. Hospitalized patients with systemic infections outside of the GU tract (e.g. pneumonia, appendicitis, diverticulitis) may also have SP (1-3). High prevalence of SP (>70%) has been reported among patients with appendicitis or diverticulitis (2). 

Non-infectious causes include current or recent catheterization of bladder, urinary stones, stents, GU malignancy, papillary necrosis,  Kawasaki’s disease, autoimmune diseases (eg, SLE) and analgesic nephropathy. 

I would start with repeating the u/a as 50% of sterile pyuria may be transient (3). If repeat u/a still shows pyuria, a prostate exam in our elderly male is indicated to exclude prostatitis. 

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References:

  1. Wise GJ, Schlegel PN. Sterile pyuria. N Engl J Med 372;11:1048-54. https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra1410052
  2.  Goonewardene S, Persad R. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity. Ther Adv urol 2015; 7:295-298.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4549703/ 
  3. Hooker JB, Mold JW, Kumar S. Sterile pyuria in patients admitted to the hospital with infections outside of the urinary tract. J Am Board Fam Med 2014;2&:97-103. https://www.jabfm.org/content/27/1/97.long#T1 

Disclosures: The listed questions and answers are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Catalyst, Harvard University, its affiliate academic healthcare centers, or its contributors. Although every effort has been made to provide accurate information, the author is far from being perfect. The reader is urged to verify the content of the material with other sources as deemed appropriate and exercise clinical judgment in the interpretation and application of the information provided herein. No responsibility for an adverse outcome or guarantees for a favorable clinical result is assumed by the author. Thank you!

My 70 year old male patient with recent hip fracture has developed fevers with sterile pyuria. How do I interpret the sterile pyuria in this patient?