In hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), has empiric treatment with beta-lactam plus macrolide or a quinolone been shown to be superior to beta-lactam monotherapy ?

Actually no! In fact, a recent study of CAP from Netherlands demonstrated that empiric treatment with beta-lactam monotherapy was not inferior to strategies using a beta-lactam-macrolide combination or fluoroquinolone monotherapy with regard to 90-day mortality, or length of hospital stay (1). To help exclude Legionella pneumonia (often accounting for <5% of CAP[2]), urine Legionella antigen was routinely performed. So once Legionella has been reasonably excluded, unless suspicion for other atypical causes of CAP (i.e. Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydophila pneumoniae) remains high, empiric monotherapy with a beta-lactam (e.g. ceftriaxone) may be reasonable in many cases of CAP.

1. Postma DF1, van Werkhoven CH, van Elden LJ, et al. CAP-START Study Group Antibiotic treatment strategies for community-acquired pneumonia in adults. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1312-23.

2. von Baum H, Ewig S, Marre R, et al. Competence Network for Community Acquired Pneumonia Study Group. Community-acquired Legionella pneumonia: new insights from the German competence network for community acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:1356.

Contributed by Jessica A. Hennessey, MD, PhD, Boston, MA

In hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), has empiric treatment with beta-lactam plus macrolide or a quinolone been shown to be superior to beta-lactam monotherapy ?

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